In the preparation of most dishes, onions are used, so each summer resident plantes this vegetable crop in his garden. Recently, new varieties have appeared that are worth paying attention to. So, for example, onion Exibishen not only differs in taste, but also grows almost to gigantic sizes. One bulb sometimes weighs up to 500 g. Consider how to grow Exhibishen onion in your garden.
Onion excisable grow from seedlings or from seeds. The first method is more common. This is due to the fact that the seedlings provide almost 100% survival. Growing onions from seeds, one should not expect that from each seed a turnip will turn out. At the same time, when buying seedlings, you can never be 100% sure that before you seedlings are onions of this variety.The variety of seeds, if purchased in a specialized store, corresponds to the name on the package.
Also, planting onion seedlings Exibishen is a less routine than growing from seeds. If you grow seedlings yourself, then you will not be able to save time, but growing onions from seedlings gives a higher yield. Consider how to properly grow vegetables from seedlings and seeds.
Growing seedlings can be divided into several stages.
- seed preparation;
- soil preparation;
- planting seeds;
- seedling care.
Let us consider each individually stage.
Preparation of seeds
Growing from seeds involves the preparation of planting material. The preparation will take about 3 days. First, the seeds are soaked in preheated water (20-25 ° C). It is enough to hold the seeds in water for 2-3 hours. Then remove the seeds from the water and carefully wrap them in a pre-moistened tissue. Planting material is left in this condition for at least 72 hours. You can hold the seeds in a damp tissue for 4 days.
After carrying out the above procedures, the seed material is decontaminated. To do this, you will need potassium permanganate. Dilute 1 gram of potassium permanganate in 1 liter of cold water, place the seeds in the resulting solution for 7-8 hours.The water temperature should be 40 ° С, therefore, during the entire time of disinfection, the solution will have to be changed or heated.
After the disinfection, the planting material needs to be planted in the ground. They do not grow seeds in open ground, so pre-prepare containers for planting (boxes, for example) and soil. Soil preparation must be approached with particular care. The soil mixture consists of 3 components: humus, sod land and rotted mullein, taken in certain proportions. Humus take 9 parts, turf land and rotted mullein – 10 and 1 parts, respectively. All components must be mixed well.
In a previously prepared container spread the soil mixture, then sow it with seeds. You can make beds, the depth of which should not exceed 1.5 cm, and after unfolding the seeds, cover them with earth, or you can go the simpler way. Spread part of the soil mixture in boxes, lay out the seeds, fill the seeds with the remaining soil mixture. To ensure good germination of seeds, they are covered with a layer of soil 1.2-1.5 cm thick. It remains to cover the box with glass or tighten with plastic wrap and wait for seedlings. In this case, the temperature should be 22 ° C. As a rule, the first shoots appear 10-12 days after planting.
As soon as the first seedlings have appeared, they open the boxes and put them in a bright place. It is important to ensure the temperature regime necessary for the normal development of seedlings. During the day, the temperature can vary from 17 to 20 ° С, in the evening – from 10 to 14 ° С.
In addition to providing a certain temperature regime, seedlings need to be systematically watered and aired. Water the onions as needed. After 60 days, the process of hardening of seedlings begins. During the hardening process, seedlings are taken out into the open air and left there for a while. You can simply open the window and put the boxes on the windowsills.
First, the procedure takes no more than 15-20 minutes, gradually this time is increased. After 2 weeks, the seedlings should be adapted so that it can be planted in open ground. Seedlings are usually not picked.
Growing by seeds
Planting onions Excised seeds are not much more difficult than growing seedlings. To some extent, growing vegetables from seeds is even somewhat easier. First you need to prepare the seed material. To make seeds easier to plant, it is advisable to stick them on paper. It is convenient to use toilet paper for these purposes. You need to take a type of paper that softens in water.
You can only glue seeds onto paper with a paste that dissolves in water.For its preparation you will need starch, water and containers for stirring. For 100 g of water, take 1 tsp. starch. First, water is poured into the container, then, continuously stirring, starch is introduced, after which the container with diluted starch is placed on the smallest fire and the mixture is brought to a boil, continuously stirring. The paste is ready.
After the paste has cooled, stick the seeds to the paper. Pre-lay the paper on the table or any other thick paper. Using any thin stick, gently apply glue to the paper in the place where the grain should be. Seeds are laid on top of the glue. Since the seeds of the Exhibit onion are very small, this process will take a lot of time.
You can, of course, do not stick the seeds on paper, but sow them in the ground in the usual way. However, by spreading each seed individually, you can save yourself from constant thinning of the beds, which takes a lot of time. In addition, part of the crop is lost during thinning.
Growing onions for the winter
Since it is difficult to keep the turnip throughout the winter, you can plant Exibishen on in the winter. True, growing onions in this way is quite difficult. This is primarily due to the temperature regime. In regions with cold winters, this method is practically impossible to implement. Plant salad onions during the first frost.The air temperature at the time of disembarkation should not fall below 0 ° C during the day, and -5 ° C at night. At the same time, the temperature on the ground should not fall below 3 ° C.
The onion emerges already at the beginning of spring, and the crop is received in July. It is better to plant a shallow seed for winter: it tolerates frosts better.
Onion Excised. Onion cultivation technology Exhibit, from a grain to a bulb 700 grams.
Giant onion Exibischen / How to grow strong seedlings onion Exibischen
Onion landing time Exibishen
The landing time is regulated by the cultivation method. If the seed method of cultivation is chosen, then the planting should be done in April. As for planting seedlings, you should wait until the beginning of May. In addition to the recommended landing dates, the climatic features of a particular region should be taken into account. Since the homeland of this vegetable crop is Holland, it needs warmth, so in regions with a harsh climate, you need to wait a moment with planting until the soil warms up. Alternatively, you can equip a greenhouse at the dacha, in which it will be possible to regulate the temperature regime.
Onion variety Exhibit can not be called particularly capricious, but he needs some care. The first thing to take care of is systematic watering. Exibishen sweet onion needs moist soil, so it is advisable to carry out agricultural activities to ensure that moisture is retained in the soil. It is advisable to mulch the soil. This measure will not only help to retain moisture in the soil, but also to some extent solve the problem of weed control. You can mulch the beds with straw, tree bark and even thick paper.
To grow a good yield of Exibishen onion, you need to provide oxygen access to the roots of the plant. An agrotechnical measure that solves this problem is loosening the soil.Loosening the soil is necessary infrequently, but systematically. If necessary, in parallel with loosening the soil, weeding the beds and weeds are removed.
In order for the Exhibishen onion to grow to its maximum size, fertilizers must be applied to the soil. Onions of this variety need the following minerals: potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium. Fertilizers need to be selected appropriate. In this case, you should not make too many dressings. Fertilizers are applied during planting and during the period of intensive growth. An overabundance of any mineral element is no less harmful than its deficiency. You can feed the vegetable crop with mineral mixtures, which include all the above elements, or you can purchase one-component fertilizers. Preference should be given to the first option.
All plants, and onions are no exception, are susceptible to various diseases. At the first signs of ailments, you need to start an intense fight against them, but in order for this fight to give the desired result, you need to understand what disease you are fighting with. Consider the diseases that are most common.
Sometimes, even with perfect care, Exibishen is attacked by a disease such as rot. It is difficult to determine, since the turnip is directly affected. A white mycelium appears on the bottom of the onion. As for the common signs, the growth of the plant slows down, feathers lie on the ground.
With these symptoms, one turnip should be pulled out and examined for rot. Methods for the treatment of this disease do not exist today, but the affected heads of onions should be pulled out of the ground. They must be eaten immediately. They are unsuitable for storage, as rot quickly spreads from the bottom to the whole bulb.
When growing onion Exibishen, summer residents sometimes encounter such a problem as smut. This is a fungal disease. It is indicated by the dark gray stripes that appear on the onion feathers. Unfortunately, this disease cannot be treated, but to preserve the onion crop, the affected feathers should be removed.
This disease, like the previous ones, is caused fungal spores, but, in contrast to rot, the neck of the bulb is primarily affected. Further, the disease spreads to the rest of the bulb. Since the process of decay occurs in the neck, the feathers stop feeding, therefore, if the onion feathers turn yellow, then the vegetable culture is affected by gray rot. This disease is not subject to treatment. We’ll talk about how to prevent its occurrence later.
This disease is caused by small-sized worms living in the ground. First of all, feathers suffer from this disease.They brighten and curl, then the bulb itself begins to rot, so it is important to start treating the disease in a timely manner.
To get rid of the stem nematode, you can use drugs that are sold in specialized stores, but they are all toxic, so right before the harvest it is impossible to cultivate the land. Experts recommend not to waste time fighting a malicious worm, but to destroy the affected vegetables. From folk remedies, you can try a solution of ash or other disinfectants. But, as practice has shown, they are ineffective.
In order to prevent the emergence of stem nematodes, you need to plant high-quality planting material. Before sowing, it can be kept for 2 hours in an infusion of ash or heated at a temperature of 43 ° C for 120 minutes.
Pests also infect the plant, which are found in the garden. To prevent their appearance on onion beds, flowers with a strong odor are grown nearby (marigolds, tansy, calendula, nasturtium, feverfew, geranium, lavender, petunia). These smells, according to reviews by summer residents who have sown such plants for years, scare away almost all harmful insects, including nematodes. You should also treat the onion fly beds with drugs sold in specialized stores.
To prevent the occurrence of pests, you can sprinkle the beds with wood ash.
In order to grow a healthy plant, he needs to be given proper care. If last year a vegetable crop suffered from fungal diseases, then you need to change the location of the beds. Spores of the fungus live in the ground for 4 years. Throughout this period, the seeds are sown elsewhere. After time, you can return the beds to this place. Alternatively, you can disinfect the soil, but it is better to plant seedlings or seeds in a new place.
Selection of planting material before sowing is another preventive measure. Seeds should be bought only in specialized stores, and seedlings from trusted people. When buying seedlings, it is important to look closely at the roots of the onion: there should not be any larvae or egg laying.
You should also process the beds with insecticides and use folk remedies. But if insecticides are used at an early stage of growth of a vegetable crop, then folk remedies, due to the fact that they are not toxic, can be used even before harvesting. To prevent the appearance of pests in the summer cottage, it is advisable to process the culture with ash or other antiseptics every 2-3 weeks.
Harvesting and storage
The first question that interests all summer residents, – how many turnips of this variety are stored?Of course, the shelf life depends on how timely the onion was harvested, whether it was properly prepared for storage and in what conditions the turnips are stored. But, even if the onion was harvested on time, and properly prepared all winter, it will not lie. As a rule, it persists for 4 months. Most likely this is due to its large size.
Harvesting onions begins on average 70 days after sowing. More specifically, after how many days you need to remove the bow from the garden, you can not. Under different climatic conditions, the ripening period of a vegetable crop varies, so you need to monitor the condition of onion feathers. After the ripening of the bulb, the feathers begin to turn yellow and lie on the ground. It is important not to overexposure the turnip in the ground: this will negatively affect its storage.
Preparing for storage
After harvesting from the garden, the onions must be dried. This is best done outdoors, but you shouldn’t spread the crop on the ground. It is advisable to pre-cover the soil with tarpaulin or burlap, and already spread the harvest on the tarpaulin. This is done so that insects living in the ground do not harm the onion. In addition, in case of bad weather, it will be much easier and faster to harvest the shed. Dry the crop for several days.
If it is not possible to dry the onions in the open air, do it in the barn. It is advisable to position the turnip so that it receives sunlight.Periodically turn the bulbs so that they dry out on all sides. It is important to ensure that the covering flakes do not crack during drying: this will adversely affect the shelf life of the turnip. As an option, you can dry the onions in the oven, but this is only suitable if it comes to a small crop. As a rule, the onion dries out completely after 10-13 days and you can proceed to the next stage of preparation.
After drying the onion, you need to sort it out. This is done in order to sort the bulbs into those that need to be eaten in the first place and those that can be stored for a long period. First of all, you need to eat bulbs that are susceptible to diseases such as rot or gray rot: these vegetables will not lie for a long time. In addition, they can not be stored next to healthy bulbs, then the bulbs are sorted by size. The larger the onion, the faster it will begin to deteriorate.
There are several ways to store onions. Many braid bulbs in braids. This is convenient because the crop takes up little space. In addition, each onion is in sight and it is convenient to get it at any time. You can store onions in drawers, but putting them on the floor is not recommended. They should be located on a hill.
It is impractical to crop in several layers: the bulbs will begin to sprout, which will significantly shorten the duration of the storage period.It is advisable to sprinkle the bulbs with husk, which is necessarily formed during drying. The room should be dry.
With regard to temperature, there are currently 3 storage methods. The first is called cold. He assumes that the temperature will be maintained in the room from -3 to 0 ° C. With this method of storage, as practice shows, onions are stored the longest. With a warm storage method in the room, the temperature is maintained from 18 to 22 ° C, while the humidity varies from 60 to 70%. With the combined storage method, in the autumn we maintain the temperature of 18-22 ° С, in the winter make sure that the thermometer column drops to -3-0 ° С, and in the fall the temperature rises again to 18-22 ° С. The latter method is the most economical from the point of view of energy consumption.
An important nuance
You will not find sevoks for sale for the simple reason that the shelf life of onions is only 4 months. And then the question arises, how to get onion seeds exibishe. This is quite possible if one sets such a goal. But you will have to try to keep at least 1 onion until at least February.
We select a medium-sized onion as the mother liquor. Its weight should not exceed 300 g. As soon as green shoots appear on the selected bulb, we plant it in a shallow container. The volume of the container should not exceed 2 liters. In this case, it is worth choosing not the most nutritious soil.An ideal option would be a mixture of turf land with sawdust and river sand. All components are taken in equal amounts. Ash is also added to the soil. For each liter of soil should take 1 tbsp. l ashes. It remains to plant the bulb and save it until planting in open ground. Plant the mother liquor so that 2/3 of the turnip remains above the ground.
The soil in the mother liquor should always be moist, but not wet. Also, after sowing, you need to monitor the lighting. If there is not too much natural light, then artificial illumination is organized.
Sometimes the uterine bulb is divided into 3 parts during the growth process. If this happens before it lands in open ground, then gently cut it into pieces. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that each has a root system. Until that time, when you have to plant the onions in the open ground, plant them in separate containers.
It is impossible that other varieties of onions grow on the garden that bloom, otherwise Excibishen will sprinkle with them, and use the seeds obtained
In order for Exibishen onion to grow well, it needs fertile soil, so you should not forget to systematically feed the ground. Also, the quality of planted turnips is affected by the quality of planting material. It is better to grow seedlings yourself from seeds, and it is advisable to purchase seeds in a specialized store.Do not forget to water the plant, which is very in need of moisture.
Excibischen is a salad onion that has a sweetish aftertaste. Perhaps, after describing the tastes of a vegetable crop, it gained popularity. Today, this variety is appreciated for its sweet taste.