Growing vegetables in our own area ensures the availability of fresh and safe products. How to plant onion sets in Siberia? Features of the climate require different approaches to cultivation and selection of varieties. In the review, we will analyze the most tested and effective points in breeding the popular spice.
- Select the section
- Varieties <
- Preparing for sowing
- Spring work
- Winter onions
- Care <
- Diseases and pests
Choose a site
Growing vegetables in severe weather conditions requires maximum attention from the gardener. One mistake will lead to the complete destruction of the crop, while not even the most resistant varieties will help. To avoid unnecessary trouble, the first thing is to find a suitable place for vegetables.
Before planting onion sets in Siberia, you should know one of its characteristic features: the culture prefers well-lit areas – beds need to be laid out in a sunny and ventilated garden sector. The plant does not tolerate acidic soils, so they are pre-alkalized with wood ash or lime.
A place for vegetables is prepared in the fall. Professionals dig up the territory with the subsequent introduction of organic fertilizers. In the spring, before starting work, mineral substances are added to the soil (in grams per 1 sq. M):
- potassium sulfate – 30;
- ammonium nitrate – 20;
- superphosphate – 40.
To avoid common diseases, it is worth remembering the rules of crop rotation. Gardeners do not recommend planting onions for several years in a row in one place, as well as after carrots and garlic. Recommended predecessors are:
Before starting work, be sure to remove the leftovers weed grasses and cultivated plants. Such care will protect against future problems. If vegetables were sick on the plot, then we advise to pickle the soil in the fall.
Very large turnips can not be grown with seeds in severe cold climates. Greenhouse varieties are only suitable for cultivation on the feather. Professionals recommend using shallow seed.
Onion varieties for Siberia are strong plants that quickly form beautiful heads. Breeders tried and presented many interesting vegetables. The most popular species:
- Siberian annual;
- Black Prince;
We also recommend planting persistent crop hybrids:
- Sterling F1;
- Dayton F1;
- Candy F1.
Before buying, pay attention to the shape and size of the heads. Too large often give a lot of arrows, so it is recommended to purchase small and medium sets. Oblong bulbs will please with round turnips, and flat varieties can boast of an ideal oval.It is important to carefully examine the material and read the description, and not choose products solely from the photo.
Preparing for sowing
Cultivation of vegetables requires the right preliminary measures. When growing onion sets in Siberia, you need to process the planting material. In this way, you can protect plants from common diseases.
In 5 liters of water add 2 tbsp. l rock salt. Turnips are soaked in this liquid for 24 hours, then they are transferred to a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes, after which they are immediately planted.
Fungal infections are the main scourge of onions, so they use a different method. The sevka is heated in water for 10 hours at a temperature not exceeding 40 ° C, then it is disinfected for 15 minutes in a weak solution of copper sulfate. Before sowing, the material is sprayed with growth stimulants.
If you do not want to warm the bulbs for a long time, they can be lowered for a quarter of an hour in water at 55 ° C, then for the same time in cold. In the end, you need to process it with a potassium permanganate solution.
When to plant onion sets in Siberia? In a harsh climate, several proven schemes are used, but a friendly full-fledged crop can be obtained only during spring work. Small seed does not give arrows, therefore it is most often used for growing turnips.
May is the best month for agricultural work.Timing varies depending on the heating of the soil. The temperature of the land during planting should not be less than 8 ° C.
The beds for seeds are broken down as follows (in centimeters):
- width – 100;
- distance between rows – 15;
- distance between turnips – 10;
- depth – 2.
Before planting in spring, the earth is moistened, loosened and cleaned from weeds. For disinfection, it is advised to pour boiling water in the wells, and to postpone the work for a day. After the activities are completed, the place is thoroughly mulched.
When growing by seeds, the deepening of the grains should not exceed 2 cm, while the distance is reduced to 1.5. Work takes place at the same time. In difficult climatic conditions, it will not be possible to grow full-fledged heads in one year. All seedlings are used on the feather.
When do they plant onions in Siberia? Some gardeners experiment with frost-resistant varieties and sow vegetables in the fall. For this, material is selected whose diameter does not exceed 3 cm.
The first decade of October is the best option for work. In these terms, the possibility of late germination is excluded. Bulbs are buried deeper, not forgetting after mulching with sawdust and straw.
The Siberian climate makes it difficult to grow onions in the fall. To preserve the winter planting from the early cold weather, you can cover the beds with seeds with a thick layer of coniferous paws. The higher the fortification, the more reliable the turnip is hidden.Such caution will protect the future crop from freezing in low snow seasons. Perennial varieties adapt perfectly to winter, and in spring they delight gardeners with young greenery.
Before the first leaves appear, work on the beds is limited to watering as the soil dries.After three feathers come out at the site of the seeds, you can begin more serious procedures. Often, inexperienced gardeners make mistakes at this point.
Fertilizing is a key element in caring for onions. Depending on what is planned to grow, certain drugs are used. Organics are used for growing on feathers, and minerals will become indispensable for producing large heads.
The first feeding consists of phosphate and ammonia products dissolved in warm water. Farmers recommend the use of ready-made specialized mixtures that are designed specifically for this crop. The second application is carried out after a month.
Excess nutrients are as harmful as deficiency, so you can not regularly “feed” onions. Before the procedure, loosen the soil, irrigate, and only then use fertilizers. If you apply chemicals to dry ground, then you can burn the delicate roots.
How to water onions? In the conditions of the Siberian climate, the procedures are carried out once a week in the first month, then the hydration periods are increased by half. In a dry summer, they allow a little to add the number of events.
The moisture intensity is most often monitored in the spring. During this period, the formation of the root system and the growth of greenery occur. Excess fluid will lead to rot and disease, and lack of it will lead to starvation.Negative swings will certainly affect the taste of onions.
Loosening is an important element of care. The culture does not tolerate oxygen deficiency, so it is important to plant vegetables on soils that pass air well. Regular weeding will get rid of weeds. The best way to make work easier is to mulch the beds.
Diseases and pests
Ignoring the rules of care will cause infections. Excess moisture in the soil and high temperature provoke the appearance of Fusarium donosa. It strikes an annual onion, as a result of which the stored turnips turn soft and disappear.
Wet bacterial rot appears at the end of the vegetative period. You can see signs only when the head is cut. For several weeks, vegetables do not show symptoms of the disease, but then massively lose their presentation.
Rusty “mosaic” spots on feathers are spores of the fungus. As infection develops, the formation of ground and underground parts stops. The pathogen hibernates in plant debris and is able to withstand the most creaky frosts. Regular destruction of weeds and straw will protect the beds.
In late May, the onion fly lays eggs under dry flakes of seeds or in the soil near the crops. After a week, hungry larvae penetrate the turnip and gradually eat the vegetable. During the summer comes at least 2 generations of pests.
To get rid of the insect, spend spraying “Metaphos”. As preventive measures, it is recommended to plant carrots nearby. A specific aroma repels a fly.
Whitish spots on the feather are traces of the activity of onion thrips. A small pest sucks the nutritious juice from the greens, as a result of which the leaves dry and break. The preparation of seeds for planting and the observance of crop rotation rules will help get rid of parasites.
You need to dig up onions when the new greens cease to form. During this period, the feathers dry and lie on the ground. A few weeks before the final procedures, watering is stopped. This trick slows down the accumulation of moisture, which provokes rotting during storage.
The best precocious variety for Siberia manages to fully mature and form protective flakes. Before harvesting, it is recommended to dig one turnip. The presence of a thick neck and light husk suggests that the culture is not yet ready for storage.
Harvesting is carried out in dry, windy weather. You need to dig carefully, taking care not to damage the bulbs. Injuries and cuts negatively affect the keeping quality of products. Do not hit heads on the surface. All harvested crops are laid out for drying in the fresh air. To speed up the process, vegetables are manually turned over for 2 weeks.
Planting with onion seeds in Siberia is an important and responsible procedure.Our recommendations will help determine the choice of a precocious variety and teach you how to plant correctly in the harsh climatic conditions.