Breeds of geese appeared a long time ago, because these domestic birds have been bred for decades. The main products that you can get from them are juicy and tasty meat, because the main characteristics of the breeds are fast growth, the quality of the meat. In addition, goose feathers, down and even leather are used in industry. Most breeds appeared in Europe, but there are Asian and African species.
- General characteristics of the rocks
- Arzamas breed
- Vladimir clayey
- Gorky breed of geese
- Danish legart
- Italian breed
- Chinese goose breeds
- Obroshinsky breed
- Rhine breed
- Pskov hairless breed
- Tula breed of geese
- Toulouse breed
- Shadrinsk breed
General characteristics of the breeds
Most breeds of European domestic geese have their pedigree from the gray wild goose. This species still exists in nature. The appearance of wild birds differs from that of domestic birds: they are smaller, their legs are taller, and their body is muscular. Wild gray goose flies beautifully, migrates to warm regions for the winter. The ancestors of the Chinese breeds were dry-fronted and cone-headed goose, which are also found in the wild now.
The main purpose of breeding domesticated geese is to get meat. Previously, goose feathers were still widely used, including as writing instruments. Now feather and down also matter, but this is far from the main product.There were also fighting geese, which often coped with the protection of the owner and his house no worse than dogs, participated in goose battles.
Modern meat breeds of geese are divided by size:
- large (Toulouse, Land, Legart);
- medium (geese Emden, Tambov, Vladimir breeds);
- small (Chinese geese, Arzamskaya, Shandra breeds.
Small geese are now increasingly moving from the category of meat to decorative. During their selection, they pay attention to the color of plumage, growths on the nose and other characteristics that make birds beautiful. For industrial purposes, broiler breeds are bred, which quickly gain weight and go to slaughter by 2-3 months. Separate species of birds and the region of origin. In connection with this characteristic, the following list of geese breeds is distinguished:
- geese of Chinese breeds (gray and white);
- Western European geese (Toulouse, Emden, Lanskaya or Landskaya breed);
- Eastern European geese (breeds bred in different regions of Russia, Ukraine, Hungary).
The popularity of broilers has led to the fact that many breeds began to disappear. According to official figures, there are now 63 species of these birds. Of these, 19 breeds are on the verge of extinction. In Europe, there are special national conservation programs. At the same time, new breeds are constantly appearing.Recently, Bashkir and Kurgan governor geese, the Ural, Krasnozersk, Ledgorsk breed, Landau were bred, interesting hybrids appear in European countries.
Below in this article you will find the most popular breeds of domesticated geese with a photo and description. You can choose which breeds of geese are most suitable for you.
Geese of the Arzamas breed appeared in the city of the same name about 350 years ago. Their reliable origin is unknown, obviously geese of some Chinese breed and places took part in breeding Russians, the main direction in which geese were bred was meat, but also fighting qualities were paid attention to. The modern Arzamas breed is considered one of the most productive. Here are its main characteristics:
- The head is short, massive and thick at the base, cheeks swollen.
- Beak large, slightly curved at the base, orange, brightens at the tip.
- Eyes large, blue.
- The neck is elongated , beautifully curved, breast rounded and extended.
- The body is massive, with an extended back and large, tight-fitting wings.
- The legs are strong, slightly shortened, the plumage is white.
- The mass of an adult goose is 6 kg, geese 5-5.5 kg, goslings 2 months – 3.7-4 kg.
- Fertility – 18-120 testicles per year, good fertilization, survival rates of chicks.
Arzamas breed is found mainly in the Nizhny Novgorod region, it is not widespread even in Russia . You can study it by looking at the photos.
Vladimir clayey breed of domestic geese was obtained as a result of the crossing of Tuluzskaya and Kholmogorskaya. It got its name because of the soft clay shade of plumage, similar to the feathers of the English Saddle breed. At the same time, breeders have tried to consolidate this attribute as much as possible so that it is passed on to subsequent generations. By weight category, Vladimir geese belong to moderate birds. Here is the main characteristic of this breed:
- The body is dense, compact, slightly elongated.
- The head is small, rounded, the neck is of medium length, thickened.
- Breast extended and rounded, on the tummy there are 2 skin folds.
- The mass of males is 7.5–9 kg, females are 6–7.2 kg, chicks at 2 months are 4 kg.
- Egg production is relatively high – 35-45 testicles.
Vladimir clay geese are unpretentious in feed, can be kept in any conditions, normally tolerate cold. The breed has an excellent gene pool, because it has great prospects in breeding. Great weight and precocity, as well as a calm disposition and beautiful plumage increase the popularity of Vladimir geese.
Gorky breed of geese
Gorky breed of domestic geese appeared in the 50s of the twentieth century. Received it by multiple crosses of Chinese, Solnogorsk and native birds. These are moving birds of a rather large size, with a raised body and white or gray-pied feathers. Here is the main characteristic of the breed:
- The body is elongated, extended and deepened, raised in front, the back bends back, wide.
- Breast expanded, rounded and high set, tummy from 1-2 folds.
- The head is small, with a lump on the forehead and a purse under the orange beak.
- Eyes are blue or dark brown in color.
- The neck is elongated, curved and thick .
- Legs are developed, with short orange metatarsus.
- The weight of a sexually mature gander is 7-8 kg, geese 6-7 kg, a goose in 2 months is 3.5-3, 8 kg.
- Egg production is 45-50 pieces per year, hatchability is 80%, almost as many chicks survive.
The breed is bred most often in Buryatia, in other regions and abroad it is little known, but the productivity of the Gorky geese is quite high: in a short time you can get good fluff from them, a lot of meat. Under conditions of keeping, the Gorky breed is unpretentious.
Danish large breed of geese Legart is quite popular among poultry farmers. Differs in a calm disposition, unpretentious, quickly gaining mass.Some even say that this is the best breed of domestic geese in the world. She is bred both in private households and on industrial farms. Gander and geese differ among themselves not only in weight, but also in some structural features of the body. Here is the standard and description of the Danish legart birds:
- The outline of the body of the gander is massive, square, the body of the geese is elongated and elongated
- The neck of the males is elongated, bends like a swan
- Small head, blue eye color, yellow beak
- Tummy with two folds
- Feathers are absolutely white
- The weight of males is 7.5- 8 kg, females – 5.5-7 kg, chicks in 3 months – 7.2 kg.
- Egg productivity – 30-40 pieces per year, an egg can weigh 200 g.
Interesting fact: goslings of legarts up to 5 months are a little like giving birth oil. Only after the second molt they acquire a beautiful white plumage and typical body shape. The first litter of the pair may not have all the characteristic features of the breed, therefore you need to navigate the second when breeding. Egg hatchability is not very good, 65%, geese have poorly developed maternal instinct, chicks grow without problems. You can increase productivity when breeding goslings in an incubator.
Geese were bred on the Apennines at the beginning of the last century. In Italy, the breed quickly gained popularity and began to spread around the world.The first representatives of the breed of Italian white geese in our country appeared in 1975. A distinctive feature of birds is a long life span, a quick set of young weight. The geese’s character is playful, independent, they can aggressively defend their territory.
Here are the main characteristics of this geese breed:
- The head is compact, with swollen cheeks, the geese have a crest on the back of the head, the gander lacks growths above the beak and sacs under it.
- The eyes are blue, the beak is orange with yellow, short, neat.
- The neck is plump, shortened, straight, it bends only in the upper part.
- The chest is widened and rounded, the back is wide, slightly convex, the body is compact, raised in front.
- the burns are strong, medium length, red-orange hue.
- The feathers are dense, snowy white.
- The gander weighs 6-8 kg, the goose weighs 5-6 kg, the two-month-old goslings – 4 kg.
- Geese carry 40-55 eggs per season.
For the Italian breed of goose any content is acceptable. Despite its southern origin, it tolerates low temperatures and even frosts. The hatchability of chicks reaches 67-70%, high survival rate. Italian goose breeds are not bad mothers, so there are no breeding problems.
Chinese goose breeds
There are two popular varieties: Chinese white geese and Chinese gray geese. They are similar to each other in many ways.The main difference is the color of the plumage, legs and beak. In white geese they are bright orange, in gray – dark, almost black. Both breeds have a distinctive feature: large growths at the base of the beak, respectively, are orange or gray. Sometimes they are called gargoyles.
In contrast to European species, the Chinese descended from a dryland and pineal goose. Although it is believed that Indian and gray geese, who flew to those parts for the winter, participated in their creation. The size and weight of Chinese birds is smaller than that of European birds. The main characteristic of Chinese geese:
- The body is compact, elongated.
- The head is small, the beak is shortened, a warty growth is clearly visible at its base.
- The neck is elongated , swan.
- The legs are medium, strong.
- The weight of an adult male is 5.5 kg, females are 4 kg.
- Egg production is high, up to 60-70 eggs per year, some geese can carry 100 eggs per year.
- Fertilization of eggs – 60-80%, hatchability of goslings – 70-80%, survival rate of young animals – 99%.
Chinese species of geese have a very tasty and spicy meat. The nature of the birds is quite aggressive, which can be a problem when breeding in a common poultry yard. Geese of Chinese breeds are popular in Asia, in Europe and Russia they are often taken for breeding, especially to increase egg production.
Obroshinsky geese appeared in 1957 on Western Ukraine, near Lviv.The geese of the gray Chinese breed and native white birds participated in the selection. The result was geese with rapid ripening, an increased number of testicles, and average weight indicators. Description of the breed:
- The body is muscular and compact.
- The chest is deep and expanded.
- There are no folds of fat on the belly.
- Head small, beak orange, medium, widened at the base, without growths.
- The neck is medium, straight.
- The legs are medium, strong.
- The wings are well developed, densely adjoin the sides, are white or gray.
- Feathers are gray with steel shimmer, with a dark strip on the head and neck or white on the chest and belly.
- The mass of the male is 7.2 kg , females – 6.8 kg, two-month-old goslings – 4 kg.
- Egg production – 35-40 testicles per year.
- Fertilization of the testes – 90%, hatchability of chicks – 70%.
Obroshinsky breed is characterized by high survival rate of chicks good tolerance of adverse climate. The meat is tasty, the chicks recover quickly. From geese, you can get up to 0.5 kg of feather per year. They breed in Ukraine, Moldova, and some regions of Russia. In addition to Obroshinsky, in Ukraine, breeds with the following names were bred: Mirgorodskaya, Kuchuberiya, Romenskaya, Krupnyaya gray and Kucherbaevskaya based on it.
Birds were bred in the vicinity Reina, in Germany. The geese of the Emden breed and local varieties participated in the selection.The breed came into our country in the late 60s through Hungary. German geese of the Rhine white breed are very productive. When breeding more profitable than emden. They differ in both early maturity and high egg production. Absolutely unpretentious in content. They can live in the pen or graze in the pasture. Here is a brief description of these birds:
- The head is small, with an average beak, orange.
- The body is medium, the breast is round and wide.
- The back is wide, slightly convex, descends to a wide tail.
- There are two fat folds on the abdomen.
- The legs are orange, of medium height, well developed.
- The gander weighs 6.5 -7 kg, goose – 5.5-6 kg, goslings in 2 months – 3.7-4 kg.
- Average number of eggs per year – 45-50 pieces, with good feeding – 65-80 pieces.
Geese are very good mother hens and mothers, the survival rate of young animals is achieved t 94%. The meat is tasty, has an excellent presentation. Rhine geese are bred in some areas of central Russia, Altai and the Far East, in the south of Ukraine, in Belarus.
Pskov hairless breed
Pskov hairless breed of geese was bred the second half of the century before last. It is the result of crossing wild white-fronted geese with local poultry. Locals often call this breed of coot. Birds were actively bred in the first half of the twentieth century, but during the war the breed almost disappeared, began to revive only in the 50s.A distinctive feature of Pskov birds is a specific white mark on the forehead.
Here is a brief description and description of the Pskov bald geese:
- The head is large, with a white spot on the forehead, the beak is shortened with small bumps, eyes are dark.
- The neck is not too long, the back is extended, elongated and straight, the breast is convex and wide.
- The body is horizontally extended and deep.
- Wings are beautiful developed, large, ponytail short, low legs, with orange metatarsus.
- Gander weight – 6-7.5 to , females – 5-6.5 kg, goslings at 2 months – 3.8-4 kg.
- The number of eggs is small – 15-20 eggs per season.
The meat of the Pskov bald geese is very tasty and tender. They perfectly gain weight when grazing on pastures, and do not require large feed costs. They tolerate low temperatures well, are unpretentious in content. They are not bred on an industrial scale; large broiler geese breeds have firmly taken their place there. In private households, these geese are popular, especially in their native region.
Tula breed of geese
The Tula fighting breed of geese was bred a very long time ago. The main goal was to raise pugnacity in birds. The Tula gander was brought up aggressive, on the same grounds made a selection. Goose fights are now a thing of the past, but the breed remains, although birds are very rare these days.They preserve it because of the interesting appearance of the birds, the historical value of this species.
Geese of the Tula fighting breed are very similar to their wild relatives. They have a compact, muscular body, large and well-developed wings that fit snugly against the body, and have strong legs. The head is small, the neck is short and thickened, the back is wide, the breast is expanded and deep. The population is quite homogeneous, but gander differ in the shape of the beak. There are 3 types:
- Lozhnosy, or red, – beak in the upper part, at the base, slightly concave. On the sides of the base of the beak there are bone growths in the shape of cones, because of them another name for such a goose is rogal.
- Straight-nosed – the top of the beak is straight.
- Steep-nosed – the beak is slightly convex like a nose with a hump.
The Tula breed of fighting geese is not very productive. Gander weigh an average of 5.5-6.5 kg, geese – 5.2-5.5 kg, young animals in 2 months – 3.9 kg. Egg production is low, 25 eggs per year. Geese are unpretentious, but prefer to live on free pasture, rather than in corrals. They tolerate low temperatures well, rarely get sick. They are bred in private farms of the Tula region and surrounding regions. Often such geese are kept as ornamental or for the sake of preserving the old breed.
Bred on the basis of wild gray geese in France, in the vicinity of the city of Toulouse. It is believed that this is the largest breed of geese.Toulouse birds are still involved in breeding, they are used to improve other breeds of geese and increase their weight. There are several varieties of these large geese. They differ in exterior features: folds on the tummy, the presence or absence of a purse under the beak (purse and walletless).
Large breeds of geese from Toulouse are well fed. They are used to produce foie gras liver and tasty meat, although now it is believed that the quality of the liver, which gives the Land breed, is better. The average term for growing birds is 2-5 months. Here is a brief description of these birds:
- The head is shortened and widened, the beak is straight.
- The neck is medium in length and very thick.
- The body is set horizontally, very massive and wide.
- Paws are powerful, shortened, metatarsus is orange.
- Feathers are shaggy, gray, are almost black, fluff is fluffy, like Angora wool.
- Mass adult gander – 7.5-10.5 kg, some individuals can show weight of 12-13 kg, goose weighs 6-8 kg, goslings in 2 months – more than 4 kg.
- Egg production – 25-40 eggs per year.
- Hatchability of goslings is low, to the limit 50-60%.
Crossbreeding with the Toulouse breed has made it possible to bring the best of breed of geese in the world. From it came the Landsky, Ledgorsk, Romny. Unfortunately, the number of parent birds is now decreasing. Most often they are grown in private farms, and not on industrial farms.It is difficult to meet representatives of the Toulouse geese breed in Russia. Giant birds are sensitive to cold, can be bred only in the southern regions.
Geese of the Shadrinsk breed appeared in the 17th century in Russia, in the Perm province. In appearance, they are very similar to wild grays. The breed was created by selecting the best birds among the wild gray geese. Even the number of cervical vertebrae in this breed is reduced to 16 pieces, as in the wild (domestic thoroughbred geese have 17-18 vertebrae). The breed never became final, it has low productivity and many flaws in the exterior. Here is a short description of the Shadrinsky birds:
- The head is small, with a direct beak.
- The neck is shortened, as is the body, the back is quite wide.
- On the stomach there are two fat folds, the legs are short.
- Adult males weigh 5.6-6.5 kg, females weigh 4.5-5.0 kg, goslings do not reach their normal weight before 5 months.
- Egg production – 25-30 pieces.
The breed is valued for its good tolerance of adverse conditions: no matter how low the temperature, geese do not freeze and do not get sick. To breed it is not very profitable for industrial cultivation, but it is quite possible for personal consumption.