Garlic has long been a favorite addition to many dishes. This root crop is very popular among farmers, due to its spicy taste, unpretentiousness in cultivation and good keeping quality. However, in order to be able to grow a crop planted in the winter, you need the correct processing of garlic.reachGoal (‘sood’); “>
- Selection of tubers
- Processing before planting
- Processing Phytosporin
- Processing with copper sulfate
- Processing from disease
- False powdery mildew
- Rust and cervical rot
- Stem nematode
- Onion beetle
- Weed treatment
- Herbicides <
- The final part
The selection of tubers for planting is of great importance. Only healthy specimens are selected without visible mechanical damage and rot. Garlic is propagated by whole tubers — single-tooth or individual cloves taken from the outside.
Better total stored garlic with multi-colored husk: pink or blue streaks. There should be no cracks on the bottom. In addition, it is important to take into account the peculiarities of your region and select a variety, zoned, otherwise you will not be able to harvest a good crop for at least 2 years until the crop adapts to climatic conditions.
The long period of cultivation of the same culture leads to the accumulation of pathological microorganisms in the heads, which provoke the development of various diseases, as well as pest larvae. Once every several years, 1/3 of the seed should be changed to single tooth. Such seed is obtained from air bulbs.
Processing before planting
Processing garlic before planting with a decontaminating solution is a must. Even completely healthy-looking teeth can be infected by bacteria or pest larvae. For processing use:
- ash solution;
The solution from the ash helps not only disinfect the tubers, but also enrich them with nitrogen , which is necessary for normal plant growth in the future. Prepare it at the rate of 400 g of wood ash per 2 liters of liquid. The solution is boiled for 30 minutes and cooled. Then the teeth are immersed in it for 2 hours.
The manganese solution is made slightly pink. For 10 liters of water put 1 tsp. Garlic is immersed in the solution for 10 hours. An identical presowing treatment is used for onions. Hydrogen peroxide can be used for disinfection.
If traces of a fungal disease were found on at least one tuber, it must be destroyed immediately and the entire seed should be treated material antifungal drug Fitosporin.The advantages of this tool are the possibility of using it at any stage of plant development.
After processing the garlic, before sowing, you still need to pour the solution into the beds. Preventive treatment is carried out every 14 days after the appearance of the first seedlings. Dilute the solution 1-2 hours before the procedure.
Treatment with copper sulfate
One of the universal disinfectants is copper sulfate. Its 1% solution is most often used to disinfect garlic tubers. Processing of garlic cloves takes place in 2 stages:
- the seeds to keep 2 minutes in saline;
- soaking for 30 minutes in a solution of copper sulfate.
Plants can be treated with copper sulfate after the appearance of the first seedlings for the prevention of fungal diseases. For 10 liters of water put 1 tsp. copper sulfate and 1 tbsp. l laundry soap grated. Onions are processed in the same way.
Despite the fact that garlic is considered a disease-resistant crop, it can sometimes be affected by some pests and fungi. Most often, this is due to:
- improper care;
- non-observance of crop rotation rules.
Weakened plants can be exposed to more than one virus, but several. The teeth before disembarkation should be disinfected in warm water with the addition of 5 drops of hydrogen peroxide for 15 minutes.
In wet weather, fungal spores actively propagate. Perosporonosis makes the leaves brittle, lighter patches appear on them. For prevention and treatment use:
- Bordeaux liquid,
- copper sulfate.
Pre-treatment of cloves by calcining them in an oven is an excellent prevention. Instead of calcination, a 50 обработку hot water treatment can be used. The seed is immersed in the liquid for literally 15 minutes, then it is cooled in cold water and dried.
Rust and neck rot
These diseases often affect onions and garlic. Rust appears as yellowish strokes on the leaves. Over time, they darken and provoke the drying of the deciduous part of the plants. Cervical rot affects tubers during storage. Vegetables become soft and get an unpleasant smell.
In order to prevent and treat diseases, only completely dry, healthy root crops should be stored. Of the drugs used:
- Bordeaux liquid;
- 1% copper chloride solution.
The pest sucks the juice from the plants. Damaged plants begin to turn yellow and eventually completely dry out. The root vegetable becomes soft, friable, gets an unpleasant smell. Donets becomes rotten.
Prevention and treatment measures:
- crop rotation;
- disinfection of seed before planting;
- regular inter-row weeding ;
- hole treatment with Thunderbolt.
The larvae infect the heads of root crops and destroy them. Ultimately, the tuber rots and becomes unpleasant. As prevention and treatment, crop rotation rules should be followed. Garlic should not be planted in places close to the area of last year’s infection. Aisles need to be mulched with peat and sand.
If egg clutches are found, plantings should be treated with ash and lime, in a 1: 1 ratio. Plantings need to be treated several times over 4 weeks. Damaged plants should be removed and burned immediately to prevent the spread of pests.
Very often provoke the appearance of fungal diseases and weed pests.Sometimes weed management is very difficult. For this, a separate group of drugs called herbicides is intended. They effectively destroy weed roots without affecting the culture itself. Such preparations are often used for the treatment of winter garlic: Lontrel Grand, Stomp, Targa Super.
The action of such preparations can be directed only to weeds or all plants. It is worth carefully reading the instructions before using the funds in order to correctly carry out all the procedures and not to be left without a crop. Spraying should be carried out when the plants already have 2 leaves or in the fall before sowing. These products effectively remove weeds and some pests. It is important to remember that after using herbicidal agents, you will need to take care of the timely application of fertilizing.
Lontrel Grand is used to remove annual and perennial weeds. If garlic is grown on green feathers, then its use is contraindicated. Processing is carried out when weeds reach 15-20 cm in height. The optimal air temperature for the procedures is 10 25 <.
Stomp is used to destroy annual weeds.
The treatment is carried out on moist soil. Planted garlic should be in the soil at a depth of at least 5 cm. The action of the herbicide lasts for 3-4 months.
Targa Super is used to effectively destroy annual weeds.After pickling, the bed should not be weeded for 1.5 months. When using the above means, garlic can not be eaten for a month.
Fungicides are divided into:
- inorganic (pesticides).
Garlic is treated with pesticides to rid plantings of infectious and other types of diseases, to destroy weeds and pests. These are chemicals that allow you to quickly cure plants. If possible, of course, it is better to try to do without them, since pesticides have the peculiarity of accumulating in tubers. Among the most powerful drugs noted: Galigan, Gezagard, Goal.
Among organic fungicides, many farmers note the drug Maxim. It is designed to protect tubers from rot during storage and before planting. The use of a fungicidal agent in the preplant period allows you to create a barrier in the rhizome zone, which remains throughout the season. In addition to the protective function, it stimulates the active growth of plants.
An important point in obtaining a good harvest of garlic is the timely processing of seeds and soil from various bacteria. The disinfection procedure should not be neglected, because spores of fungi and pest larvae can remain inside the teeth for a long time, while the root crop will remain healthy.In addition, additional processing of winter garlic helps keep the cloves intact in the soil throughout the winter.
In order to prevent, it is important to follow the rules of crop rotation. You should not plant a crop for several years in a row in one place. Garlic responds well to the application of additional fertilizers in the soil.The introduction of chicken manure or manure under the previous culture is an excellent prevention of the appearance of some pests.