Blueberries, Calories, benefits and harms, Benefits

Among the people, blueberries are known primarily for their high price.
and the ability to improve vision. But scientists by their research
demonstrate the true value of blueberries and prove that for the sake of
some of the medicinal properties of the berry are sometimes worth overpaying.

Useful properties of blueberries

Composition and calorie content

Fresh blueberries contain (per 100 g): .

Calories 57 Kcal

The composition of blueberries has a high content of vitamins C,
K, E (about 30%, 16% and 14% of the daily intake, respectively).
In terms of mineral content, blueberries are not among the record holders,
but in moderation, fruits contain iron, zinc, magnesium,
potassium, phosphorus, etc.

Blueberries in a wooden bowl

The berries also contain pectin
substances (up to 0,6%), organic
acids (up to 2,7%), fiber
(1,5-2%), sugar (8-10% at the time of collection). Moreover, in the cultivated
northern tall blueberries have about twice the amount of sugars,
than in the wild. And this indicator can still be significantly increased,
if 4-6 days “hold” the fruit on the bush after staining.

Up to 100 mg of anthocyanins are found in 3500 grams of fresh blueberries
and leukoanthocyanins, up to 200 mg of flavonols, about 270 mg of catechins,
300-340 mg of triterpene and 150-300 mg of chlorogenic acids.

The amount of a variety of substances that cause healing effects
blueberry, varies greatly depending on the species (varietal)
accessories and methods of cultivation. For example, in a cultivated
blueberries turned out to be, on average, almost two times less
organic acids than marsh berries. When comparing content
chlorogenic acid, flavonol, anthocyanin in the varieties O’Neal, Bluecrop,
Bluejay, Brigitta recorded significantly higher
levels of anthocyanidins than other varieties. But organically
grown blueberries turned out to be very little anthocyanidin, but
a lot of flavonol and chlorogenic acid. .

Also in the definition of phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin and antioxidant
the enzymatic activity of the pulp and skin of berries is essential
has a stage of fruit development. When comparing data for 5
stages of development of tall blueberries (from the “green” stage to
“Blue”), it was found that most of the polyphenol oxidase
(an enzyme of the oxidative system) was found in green berries,
catalase (an enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide)
– in red, superoxide dismutase (another antioxidant
enzyme) – in blue. Although, in general, the more ripe the blueberries were,
the higher the activity of antioxidant enzymes it showed. .

Blueberry smoothie

Medicinal properties

If we consider blueberries as a set of valuable biologically active
substances, it is possible to predict various pharmacological
effects associated with ingestion of it:

  • Phytoestrogens (plant hormones) in blueberries protect against disease
    heart and blood vessels (reduce “bad” cholesterol, delay the development
  • Coffee and chlorogenic
    acids have a capillary-strengthening, urinary and choleretic
  • Folic and ellagic acids prevent the appearance of neoplasms.
  • Bioflavonoids
    contribute to the normalization of the thyroid gland and some
    other endocrine glands.
  • Betaine from blueberry fruit exhibits anti-ulcer properties.
    In addition, betaine is known as an appetite stimulant and as an atherosclerotic
    and a lipotropic substance capable of removing fats and toxic
    decay products.
  • Pectin substances prevent damage to body tissues
    heavy metals and radioactive elements.
  • Plant fibers improve the functioning of the digestive tract.

Despite the great potential of the berry, about the medicinal properties of blueberries,
reliably confirmed by peer-reviewed scientific research,
today not very much is known, although work is underway to study it
specialists from all over the world.

Blueberry berries

There is evidence that due to the use of the fruit extract of some
of the species of this plant, insulin resistance is “corrected”. Recently
a published study of blueberry supplementation in mice reported
about improving glucose tolerance.
Potentially, these properties of blueberries could be used,
for example, in the treatment of diabetes in humans, but most of the effects are still
recorded in laboratory experiments. True, the media appeared
a report that at the Center for Human Nutrition Research in Beltsville
(Maryland) under the USDA clinical
studies have tested the effect of blueberry powder on sensitivity
patients to insulin. However, the results have not yet been reported.

However, some of the medicinal properties of blueberries are already being confirmed.
and in human studies. For example, many from childhood
“From the elders” it is known that blueberries have a beneficial effect on the visual
function. And although folk ideas are often mythologized
product, attributing unconfirmed properties to it, this time
scientific evidence, in general, confirms the established image.

So, Chinese scientists have found that the tablet intake of extracts
blueberries can reduce visual discomfort and relieve
from rapid eye fatigue that occurs during work
on the computer. Also studying the effects of blueberries on visual function
a person was held in the USA, New Zealand, Italy, Spain,
France and other countries.

In Japan, for example, scientists divided 26 people into 2 groups,
one of which was given daily 125 mg of blueberry extract, on
for 28 days. Throughout the experiment, using frequent
flashes of light in the subjects, the speed of onset of fatigue was checked
eyes and the degree of visual impairment. It turned out that representatives
the group that received the berry supplement got tired more slowly,
and the deterioration in their vision was less pronounced. Same Japanese results
scientists received when they swapped the representatives of the groups and
once again duplicated the experiment. No wonder now
it has become a popular practice for the Japanese to protect their eyes from radiation
monitors through the preventive use of blueberry juice
or vitamin products containing blueberry concentrate.

Ophthalmologist recommends blueberries for eye health

Other scientists (albeit again only in laboratory experiments) found
that polyphenol-enriched blueberry fractions reduce damage
the retina caused by blue light in experiments on cellular
crops and mice. According to scientists, such polyphenol fractions
in the future will be able to serve as a therapeutic agent in the fight against
age-related macular degeneration. .

Also in the future, blueberries may be able to help in the treatment
oncological diseases. Chinese scientists have found that the extract
blueberry reduces vitality and also affects cyclic
the progression and permeability of the membranes of the grown Hep-G2 cells (cellular
line of human hepatocellular carcinoma), Caco-2 (cell
line of human colorectal adenocarcinoma) and 3T3-L1 (non-malignant
mouse cells).

Another group of researchers independently concluded that
anthocyanins extracted from blueberries could be promising
a therapeutic tool for the suppression of human colorectal cancer
(anti-inflammatory activity was recorded in experiments
on cancer cells of the human colon and rectum).. Also,
already in animal experiments, blueberries inhibited development
esophageal cancer, estrogen-induced breast cancer and
prevented DNA damage.

Although evidence for the anti-cancer benefits of blueberries remains limited,
The American Institute for Cancer Research added the berry to its list
products for the fight against cancer.

Blueberry extracts have the potential to provide
preventive and therapeutic action and against ulcerative
regulating oxidative processes and suppressing the expression of mediators
inflammation (these effects were found in experiments on mice).

Blueberry extract

There is evidence that blueberries are good for cardiovascular
So, in one study, the intake for
half a year of dried blueberry mixture, equivalent to 150 grams of berries
per day, provided a 12-15 percent reduction in the risk of cardiovascular
pathologies in people with metabolic syndrome, improved function
endothelium (layer of cells of the inner surface of blood vessels) and decrease
stiffness of the arteries..
In another 8-week clinical study, 48 women in
postmenopausal women in the early stages of hypertension were given a powder extract
blueberries, equivalent to a cup of berries a day. As a result, patients
upper pressure decreased by an average of 5,1%, and lower – by 6,3%
(compared to placebo group).

Blueberries also improve brain function. Since
blueberry anthocyanins are able to cross the blood-brain barrier,
they can reduce vulnerability to oxidative stress caused by
with aging, reduce inflammation and increase signaling
between neurons. According to Barbara Shukitt-Hale
from the Laboratory of Neurology and Aging Tufts HNRCA, “growing volume
preclinical and clinical studies have identified neurological
benefits associated with the consumption of berries; in addition to their
now well known antioxidant effects, nutritional supplements
with berries also have a direct effect on the brain. “

In one large-scale study conducted with the participation of 16 thousand
women over 70 years old, they were offered to eat half a cup of blueberries
or strawberries 1-2 times a week. According to scientists, it slowed down
the rate of brain aging by about 1,5-2 years.

In an animal experiment, scientists found that adding
blueberries in the diet improved short-term memory, navigation
skills, balance (balance) and coordination. It is assumed that
the active substances in blueberries probably “make”
senescent neurons exchange information efficiently. .

Not only berries, but also other parts have healing properties.
plants. For example, a pronounced immunomodulatory effect is shown
flavonoids of blueberry leaves. Ethanol extracts
significantly reduce the indicators of tumor necrosis factor in the cellular
material, normalize (by reducing the expression) regulation of the factor,
controlling the cell cycle, apoptosis and gene expression of the immune
answer. That is, flavonoids derived from the leaves of the plant are likely
prevent inflammation, cancer and autoimmune diseases. .

Blueberry dietary supplements tablets

Use in medicine

In pharmacy chains, blueberry preparations registered as
medicines are not for sale, but you can find there
Supplements from various manufacturers, which contain extract
blueberries. As a rule, these extracts are part of a group of drugs that improve
the state of the cardiovascular system. But even in this industry,
dispenses with scandals and revelations.

In 2016, a warning was published in the media .
on the functioning of the blueberry extract fraudulent scheme
for the treatment of sugar
diabetes. For persuasiveness, the authors of the scheme created a fake
the website of the Ministry of Health, on the pages of which a dietary supplement was advertised under the name
“Golubitox”. (The practice of creating such landing sites in general
widespread in Internet commerce).

The very fact of unfair sale of dietary supplements does not mean that
the drug is fake or ineffective. But such a dubious scheme
widespread dissemination could well undermine the credibility
consumers to the product. However, this did not happen. The drug “Golubitox”
and today it is issued in the top for the request “blueberry extract” by all
popular search engines.

“Golubitox” is sold in the form of drops of concentrated fruits, shoots
and blueberry leaves and, according to the instructions, is intended for complex
restoration of the body. Among the medicinal properties of the drug, in
first of all, those that were found in real
medical and scientific research: normalization of visual function,
improving the functioning of the brain, gastrointestinal tract, heart, regulation of blood pressure,
restoration of blood vessels and prevention of atherosclerotic damage.

In addition, among the therapeutic effects, normalization is indicated.
sleep, improving the condition of the skin, nails and hair, eliminating bacterial
and fungal infection, prevention of sexual dysfunction, infertility,
osteoporosis, etc. But, since the full composition of the drug includes
and many other herbal ingredients, possibly part of the effects
should be attributed to them.

Unripe blueberry bush

In folk medicine

In folk medicine, blueberries are also used as a remedy for
treating diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, reducing high
pressure, restoration of visual function. With vitamin deficiency juice
Blueberries are drunk as a tonic and anti-scurvy agent. Tea
a fruit and leaf based drink is brewed to reduce high
temperature, inhibition of inflammatory processes, elimination of radioactive

Bush berries are also used as a mild laxative,
diuretic and choleretic for inflammation of the renal pelvis,
mucous membrane of the large intestine, stomach and small intestine, with dysentery
and gastritis.

Decoctions and infusions

The general rules for the preparation of blueberry infusions suggest
using 20 grams of fresh or dried fruit per glass of boiling water
(250 ml), which are soaked in hot water for an hour.
With bronchitis
and at temperature, such an infusion is taken with a teaspoon of honey twice
80 ml per day, with hypertension – 50 ml three times a day, with
colitis – 2 tbsp. l. every 3 hours.

To prepare decoctions from leaves and shrub shoots, you will need
50 grams of crushed raw materials per glass of water (250 ml), which
boil for 30 minutes. Drink the broth after straining
for heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, inflammation
organs of excretion, kidney disease, anemia, constipation.
Different traditional healers can find dosage options,
but the most common scheme for taking herbal decoctions
parts of the shrub – 1 tbsp. l. 3 times a day. In case of problems with
heart often recommend 3-6 doses per day.

In scientific research

Evidence-based medicine cannot blindly rely on the experience of folk
medicine, so scientists in their experiments have been checking for a long time
known and new medicinal properties of blueberries. Examples of such studies
are given below:

Blueberry extract has a beneficial effect
eye fatigue and visual discomfort provoked
computer screen.

60 volunteers were divided into two groups: for 4 weeks
participants from the first were given 1000 mg / day of blueberry extract in
pills, participants from the second – placebo. Experiment Results
were assessed by a questionnaire followed by scoring from 0
up to 60. Within a month, the subjects assessed the degree of irritation
eyes, tension, dryness, tearing, fogging, etc.
etc. whenever we sat down at the computer. At the end of the experiment
scoring showed that visual discomfort in the first group
was significantly lower than before the start of the experiment. Differences in valuation
the condition of the participants in the second group was not.

Blueberry extract reduces the viability of cellular
lines of human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2), colorectal
human adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and non-malignant cells
mice (3T3-L1), and also affects cyclical progression and permeability
membranes of grown cells.

According to scientists, blueberry extract contains 3 types of anthocyanins
(cyanidin-3-glycoside, malvidin-3-glycoside, malvidin-3-haloctazide).
It is with their influence that the release of LDH, a marker of permeability, is associated
cell membranes. LDH levels measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours
after applying blueberry extract. It turned out that permeability
membranes of Caco-2 cells increased by 21% after 48 hours and by 58%
– after 72 hours in comparison with measurements after the first day.
The results were even better with Hep-G2 cell culture: 66% and
139% respectively. As for 3T3-L1 cells, their activity
marker LDH unexpectedly for scientists decreased by 21% after 72 hours
after using blueberry extract.

The use of the extract also affects the cell cycle. Violations
in one of the phases of this cycle leads to an increase in the level of death
cells of all three cultures.

Systematic use of blueberry extract
exhibits hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antidepressant-like
and antiperoxidant effects in a metabolic syndrome model
on animals.

In this study, scientists examined the effects of blueberry fruit extract
rod-shaped on the parameters of metabolic, behavioral and oxidative
stress in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice feeding on
high-calorie food. The animals were divided into 4 groups: in the first
two groups of mice ate standard food for 150 days
with and without blueberry extract, in the third and fourth – high-calorie
food with neutral saline and extract additives.

Animals of group No. 3 (“high-calorie food + saline solution”)
by the end of the experiment were characterized by increased body weight, increased
the volume of visceral fat, increased triglycerides,
glucose, cholesterol, had insulin resistance. Adding
blueberry extract in group 4 prevented an increase in these metabolic
parameters. In addition, the extract has been shown to reduce levels
substances that react with thiobarbituric acid in the cerebral cortex
brain and hippocampus of animals. Differences manifested in mobility
animals – in group No. 4, mice were more active, compared with
animals in group No. 3.

Fresh blueberry juice

For losing weight

The above study showed that blueberry extracts
(at least – rod-shaped blueberries)
can neutralize the accumulation of visceral fat and prevent
increase in body weight of animals sitting on a high-calorie diet.

There is no direct evidence that in a similar way extracts
(or, moreover, berries in the diet) will affect people. But in 2019
year, British researchers conducted an experiment in which they
for 6 months, blueberry supplements were introduced into the diet of people
with metabolic syndrome, in which there is an increase
the volume of adipose tissue in the waist, as well as the violation of fat and carbohydrate
exchange in the body. And indirectly, the results of these studies confirm
the influence of blueberries on the metabolism of overweight people.

115 people with metabolic syndrome aged 55-70 years and
body mass index exceeding 30 kg / m2, received in three groups
either 75 grams of blueberries per day, or 150 grams, or a placebo
(more precisely, they were given a dried powder equivalent to the indicated dosage).
According to the results of the experiment, scientists came to the conclusion that, in contrast
from a placebo and even a 75-gram dose of blueberries, a 150-gram supplement
per day was able to reduce up to 15%
some metabolic indicators.

May be a little confused by the fact that the study was carried out
with the support of an organization that monitors the distribution
blueberries in the United States (US Highbush Blueberry Council). However,
firstly, the study authors deny any outside interference
in their work, and, secondly, such experiments are still encouraging
those who want to lose weight, especially when it is difficult for a person to overcome their
eating habits and a tendency to overnutrition.

Blueberry pie

In cooking

Blueberries are eaten fresh and dried without additional processing,
and damaged berries are processed into preserves, jams, juices,
sauces, fruit drinks,
berry wines, kvass. In culinary recipes, blueberries are part of
baking. In some regions of the United States and Canada, muffins and cakes are
this berry has become a local specialty.

Chinese blueberries can be used as an effective
natural preservative that can suppress activity
Staphylococcus aureus,
monocytogenic listeria and some other pathogenic bacteria.
It is assumed that the components of the raw blueberry extract,
destructively act on the membrane cell wall of bacteria.
At least in this way the E. coli strain
O157: H7 kills stunted wild blueberry extract.

In cosmetology

In cosmetology, blueberries are used in the form of berry extracts intended
to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation, reduce redness
and signs of aging, as well as to nourish the skin and provide antioxidant
support. Optimal concentration of blueberry extract in the composition
anti-aging agents is approximately 2-3%. Milled
plant seed powder is sometimes used as an exfoliating agent
agent in scrubs.

In home cosmetics, blueberries are rarely used, because
the cost of such procedures is considered unreasonably high. But the leaves
wild bush in decoctions and infusions are still in demand for
creating a tonic effect when taking a bath.

Dangerous properties of blueberries and contraindications

Blueberries are considered to be a low allergenic food. However,
lactating women are advised to carefully introduce it into the diet so that
do not provoke allergies
in children. This berry is also not recommended for violations of the normal
outflow of bile (for example, with biliary dyskinesia),
when taking blood-thinning medications (so as not to interfere with them
action), when diagnosing thrombosis.
The high content of vitamin K in blueberries, which helps to increase
blood clotting, can aggravate the situation.

If when eating wild blueberries “from the bush” there is an individual
a change in consciousness, which is accompanied by symptoms similar to
with symptoms of intoxication, you should reduce the amount of food eaten
berries or change the place of collection. It is believed that such
the effect may occur due to the proximity of wild blueberries to wild rosemary
marsh, resulting in the essential oils of poisonous rosemary
may accidentally end up on harmless blueberries.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of blueberries.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

Selection and storage

When buying blueberries, choose uniformly colored berries.
(without red “poles”), without neglecting fruits with a whitish bloom,
as it is a natural covering that protects the skin of the fruit.
To preserve the protective layer, blueberries should only be washed directly
before eating. Organic berries do not need to be washed at all if the producer
(the seller) are trustworthy.

Frozen blueberries

After harvest, blueberries, unlike many other products,
does not ripen anymore, therefore it is important that the harvest is carried out in the optimal
interval (this is another reason to trust the manufacturer). If after
leave the berries on the bush for up to a week, then
under favorable weather conditions, both the mass and the number of
sugars in fruits. But if blueberries are harvested late, their density
decreases, and it may be damaged in transit, for which
it is also advisable to pay attention when choosing.

Before buying, to make sure there is no mold or crystals
ice (when it comes to frozen berries), blueberries in a container
shake slightly: the fruits should not stick together.

Store fresh berries in a sealed container in the refrigerator. When
temperature + 2 / + 4 ° С and humidity 80-95% blueberries can lie
without losses up to 3 weeks, and at a temperature of 0 ° С – up to one and a half months,
although it is believed that the fresher the fruit, the more aromatic and tasty it is.

Long-term storage involves freezing berries. Optimal conditions
for this – temperature from 0 to – 1 ° С and humidity in the range of 90-95%.
Research has shown that frozen blueberries retain great
part of the anthocyanin content.

In a domestic environment, blueberries are harvested by drying the decomposed
in one layer of berries in the sun. A day after the fruits have dried up,
they are placed in the shade, in a room with good ventilation or under
sheds and dry out, turning over from time to time to prevent
decay and mold. Sometimes berries are dried in ovens or drying ovens.

In production, to extend the shelf life of blueberries, they use
modified gas environment, which is created in sealed
bags, and shock freezing with a stream of cold (up to -40 ° C) air.
Then, when the internal temperature of the berry reaches -20 ° C, the berries
transferred to a freezer with a temperature of about -18 ° C.

It is partly the ability to save blueberries for future use that leads to
the fact that prices for blueberries, even in the season, beat all records. Substandard
blueberries also do not disappear – they are processed into jams and juice. TO
In addition, investments in infrastructure providing cooling, sorting,
packaging, processing of fruits, for their part, increase the cost
product. However, this is not the main and not the only reason for the high
blueberry prices.

Blueberries and other berries

Why are blueberries so expensive?

The market price of blueberries is influenced by many parameters, the combination
which boils down to the fact that the demand for this berry systematically exceeds
sentence. Here are just a few factors affecting pricing:

The ability to send blueberries to foreign markets with more

The “geography” of blueberry consumption is constantly expanding, including
at the expense of countries that do not have their own plantations. For example, Ukraine, which
for several years in a row it has been regularly and rapidly increasing the area
blueberry plantations (recently taking the 2nd place in this parameter
after Peru), exports berries on an industrial scale and to Europe,
and to Asia and the Middle East. But even in countries with their traditional
large-scale plantations from time to time due to weather conditions
or diseases, crop failure occurs, increasing the opportunities for competitive
export. Organic products are especially strongly export-oriented.
berries, blueberries from which are rarely and expensively sold domestically.

Features of cultivation.

Blueberries are a very beneficial berry, but in the long run.
This shrub takes a relatively long time to fully bear fruit,
but also yields longer yields than, for example, strawberries,
raspberries or blackberries, which start to make a profit very quickly.
However, the need for long-term non-profit investments is also reflected
on the price, increasing the value of the goods.

Features of harvesting.

The blueberries that hit the shelves are, of course, not a wild berry,
which still needs to be found. Modern plantations are specially organized
for convenient and, in part, mechanized harvesting. For example,
in the USA and the Netherlands, special trailed and self-propelled
combines for these purposes. But picking blueberries is still time consuming.
process. The fruits of this plant do not ripen at the same time, and on
one bush contains both ripe and green berries. therefore
usually the first two or three collections are carried out manually and only the final
– mechanized. At the same time, fruits harvested by machines are often damaged
and they still have to be additionally sorted and cleaned. IN
as a result of this, the banal problem of “lack of
hands ”, which the countries that grow berries regularly encounter.

Girl picking blueberries

Varieties and cultivation

Almost all modern cultivars, of which there are today
about two hundred, – hybrids of crossing different types of American
blueberries. We have the most popular group of varieties blueberries
northern tall
… Such plants withstand low
temperatures up to about -30-35 ° С, in contrast, for example, from southern
tall plant
transferring temperatures down to -5 ° С,
and even more so – from Ashie blueberries with frost resistance
to 0 ° C).

But we will cite here as examples of blueberry varieties that
have the highest anthocyanin content in berries:

  • O’Neal. Represents a group of southern varieties
    tall blueberries, among which it is considered the most fragrant
    (fragrant) variety. O’Neal produces early maturing large dark blue
    fruit. In the conditions of mild winters, it retains the beautiful foliage of gray-green
    colors, but in cold climates the leaves change color before shedding
    to bright red.
  • Bluecrop. Industrial reference abundantly
    a fruiting variety known since 1952. Slightly flattened
    berries reach 17-20 mm in diameter. Ripen to blue
    with a pronounced light blue bloom. They don’t crack
    and tolerates transportation and storage well. Bluecrop is characterized by
    bright tart taste, but if harvested early or too much
    the number of berries on the bush may turn out to be sour.
  • Bluejay. The variety was bred in the USA back in 1952,
    and passed into production in 1977. Represents a unique
    a mixture of old varieties (Pioneer, Grower, Stanley, Brooks) with forest
    plant populations. In good conditions, berries can reach
    20 mm in diameter and weighs up to 4 grams. Very dense light blue
    fruits with a slight waxy coating have a wine-sweet taste with
    slight sourness. Convenient in organizing harvesting for those
    that up to 70% of berries ripen almost simultaneously, after which it takes a long time
    do not crumble.
  • Brigitta Blue. Berries of this variety grow
    up to 15 mm in diameter and have a sweet and sour taste. Into fruiting
    Brigitta Blue enters its fourth year, after which it shows
    regular yield of about 4-6 kg per bush (in conditions of average
    stripes bush grows up to 1,8-2 meters).

Blueberry bush

Early ripening varieties yield in the first half of July, late ripening
– in the first half of August. At the same time, the cultivation of any blueberry requires a tough
compliance with certain conditions:

  • Soil for blueberries. The plant needs acidic
    soils with a pH level of 3,8-5 (not higher than 5,5). When planting a bush
    it is necessary to make a soil mixture, consisting mainly
    from sour peat with the addition of leaf humus and coniferous
    litter (in a ratio of 5: 2: 1). After that, the soil is usually mulched.
    sawdust or bark (about 10-15 cm). There is a common
    (albeit not indisputable) opinion that the love of acidic soil arose
    this plant is due to its symbiosis with mushrooms. Blueberry roots
    devoid of fine suction hairs, but densely braided by mushroom
    threads that help the plant absorb nutrients.
  • Planting blueberries. This will require a meter
    a hole in diameter about 60 cm deep.Under the next bush of tall
    A blueberry pit is dug no closer than 2 meters from the previous one. Plant
    demanding on moisture (neither drying out nor flooding is allowed)
    therefore, the shrub is planted in a well-drained and moist
    priming. A calm, well-lit area is selected. Not bad
    blueberries grow in partial shade, but shrubs planted in the sun
    produces larger and sweeter berries.
  • Blueberry seedlings. Varieties for planting are selected
    based on the specified climatic conditions. For growing in
    private gardens pay attention not only to the taste of berries and yield,
    but also on the decorative appeal of the bush. Industrial
    approach take into account the size and taste of the berry, its ability
    transfer transportation, the order of fruit ripening to
    bushes, etc. d.
  • Care. Watering blueberries during dry periods
    carried out at least 1 time per week in the amount of 10-20 liters per bush.
    If the water is hard, with a lot of alkali, before watering it
    acidified with vinegar in a ratio of about 1 tsp. for 2 liters
    water. To improve fruiting in early spring, pruning is carried out
    bushes. Potassium-phosphorus fertilizers are applied in the fall, in the spring and
    at the beginning of summer – nitrogen.

In recent years, cultivation of
blueberries in container-pots, which makes it possible to create optimal
soil conditions and provide the plant with constant light.

Blueberry blossoms

Interesting Facts

Common blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum)
considered a very close relative of blueberries.
This is easy to verify, even if you just compare the photos of the berries.
And there would be nothing special if such a close relationship
and the similarity would not prevent people who are far from biology from recognizing blueberries

The fact is that to satisfy research interest is strong
confusion in terminology interferes. Blueberries seem to be constantly called
blueberries and vice versa. This is especially noticeable when
you look in English-language sources. A native speaker understand
difficult, and even more so for a foreigner. Especially if the authors of educational
articles do not specify which “blueberry” or “bilberry” they are
they write.

In special dictionaries . the compilers try to
resolve the issue of translation, but to choose how to translate “blueberry”
(“Blueberries” or “blueberries”), without further qualifying definition
can not do.

  • dwarf blueberry (Vaccinium caespitosum) – dwarf blueberry,
  • rabbit-eye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum)
  • sugar blueberry и lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)
    – narrow-leaved blueberries, etc.

This is where scientific terminology is really needed, and where the Latin
titles just save. It might seem like the whole problem comes down to
to the difficulties of translation. But that’s only until you see
the entire list of blueberry names in Russian literature. Here
confusion of the terms “blueberry” and “blueberry” is also found constantly.
And there are also many folk (including regional) names
berries: fool, gnobol, vodka, titmouse, etc.

Stunted blueberry

Such a number of Slavic variants of the name received the type of blueberry,
known here as boggy, or undersized. The berries of this plant
in Eurasia, too, has been eaten for a long time, and the leaves have been used
for leather tanning. But today they have become a consumer product
after all, the fruits of North American berries that have spread
around the world from about the .th century, but began to be actively cultivated
only in the XXth. Therefore, most of
interesting facts about blueberries:

  • In the USA and Canada, more than
    twenty blueberry festivals with fairs and tasting of the best varieties
    in a variety of dishes.
  • Blueberries have become a symbol of New Jersey. A thematic museum is open there,
    which was founded by the “blueberry queen” Elizabeth Coleman
    White is the first woman to put blueberry cultivation on a wide
    commercial base and became president of Cranberry in 1929
    Growers Association. After her death, the body, according to the will,
    burned and scattered the ashes over their favorite cranberry swamps and plantations
    blueberries. In honor of her, the blueberry variety Elizabeth is named, which gives
    berries with a mild rich flavor up to 22-25 mm in diameter.
  • During the American Civil War, the practice of using
    blueberry decoctions for the prevention of scurvy.
  • North American planters from the middle of the last century have become
    produce honey
    from the nectar collected by bees in a blueberry field. Today similar
    the product can also be found on our counters.
  • For the shape of the calyx, which remains on ripe fruits, blueberries
    in America they are sometimes called “star berries”.

Despite the increase in popularity, blueberries remain in our country
expensive and gourmet product, which, nevertheless, does not care
is in demand. Its fruits are justifiably appreciated both for their taste and for medicinal
properties. And although it is too early to call blueberries a real medicine,
the benefits of eating these berries are definitely greater than the harm.

See also the properties of other berries:

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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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