To get a plentiful harvest, you need to know the features of growing plants. Tomatoes are a capricious and thermophilic culture, so they often die due to the mistakes of farmers. What is the correct temperature for planting tomatoes? We will analyze in detail the factors for which a positive result can be achieved.reachGoal (‘sood’); “>
- Optimum temperature
- Stages of planting
- Seedling <
- Landing in open ground
- Planting in the greenhouse
- Planting dates
- How to protect from frost
Optimum temperature conditions
When growing vegetables in the domestic climate, often all crops are frozen P At the first cold snap, Ignorance of the requirements of culture becomes fatal. Even cold-resistant hybrids in the early stages are not able to withstand temperature errors.
Tomatoes of all varieties sharply react to both low and high values of the thermometer. Critical values are 5 ° C for the dark and 42 ° C for the day. In these cases, it is difficult to reanimate the plantings, so experienced farmers try not to make mistakes. Already at a temperature of 16 ° C:
- the development of the root system stops;
- the number of ovaries on the stems decreases;
- water and nutrients are poorly absorbed;
- diseases are activated;
- decay of underground parts occurs.
In the heat of the plants, foliage and flowers are dumped, which also negatively affects the future harvest. Growing a culture in a greenhouse or sheltering with a dark film provokes overheating, which is also dangerous for capricious tomatoes. Warm warm air is an excellent environment for the development of diseases.
To grow a healthy plant in domestic conditions, you need to know the temperature features for each development period. Non-compliance with the regime will instantly affect the general state of culture. Seed producers often indicate the requirements on the packaging.
To get healthy young tomato growth, you need to properly plant planting material. Before sowing, the seeds are first heated in warm water: 5-10 minutes at a temperature of 50 ° C to 60 ° C. After the procedure, spread on a napkin to absorb moisture, then place in the refrigerator for a couple of days. Such manipulations activate the protective properties of the culture, preparing for climate variations.
After sowing, the containers are covered with glass or polyethylene, creating a mini-greenhouse inside. The recommended temperature for germination is from 24 ° C to 27 ° C, without sharp fluctuations. Under such conditions, seedlings cannot be kept for long, otherwise the seed material will die. With the advent of the first shoots, the shelter is removed, and the containers are transferred to a bright place, after which they maintain heat at 20 ° C during the day, and from 16 ° C to 18 ° C at night.
To seedlings are not stretched, it is advised to lower the temperature during the day to 15 ° C, and in the dark – to 10 ° C. A cold snap will stop the development of stems, especially in low light conditions.
Before planting tomatoes in open ground or a greenhouse, you must gradually accustom the plants to environmental conditions. Hardened seedlings quickly adapt to a new growth site, so they won’t hurt. If you ignore this requirement, tomatoes are delayed in development and die from the very first weather fluctuations.
After a dive, you can begin to harden the culture. To do this, take out the containers to the balcony or to the street, leaving the young growth at a temperature not lower than 15 ° C. Gradually increase the time spent outdoors and reduce the degree. In the last couple of days before planting, it is recommended to leave the plants overnight at 10 ° C.
If you start hardening from mid-April, the seedlings will be stunted. A good sign is the appearance of a purple hue on the leaves.
Tomatoes should not stand on a cold surface: the roots react violently to any changes. Seedlings are recommended to be kept on a window sill or on a table. To cool the room open the window or sash of the balcony.
Planting in the open ground
After the seedlings have passed hardening, proceed to the next stage. At what temperature can tomatoes be planted in the ground? Night frosts will reduce all efforts to zero, so it is necessary to carry out control measurements of the soil for several days.
It is recommended to proceed with planting after the open ground has warmed up to 12 ° C. Experienced farmers in different parts of the beds put thermometers. Work can be started as soon as the device displays the necessary data. To seedlings took root, it is better to plant it in the evening or in cloudy weather. The sun will not burn the foliage, so the procedure will be stress-free.
What should I do if I urgently need to start planting, but the soil has not warmed up? An hour before the event, 1 liter of hot water is poured into each well, after which the surface is hidden under a film. Cover material that blocks seedlings until stable heat sets in will save from frost.
Planting in a greenhouse
At what temperature should tomatoes be planted in protected ground? The structure of polycarbonate, polyethylene or glass perfectly passes the rays of the sun, while maintaining heat. A microclimate with constant humidity is created inside the greenhouse, which stimulates seedlings to active development.
К planting tomatoes begin only when the soil in the greenhouse warms up to 14 ° C above zero. For measurements using a conventional outdoor thermometer. The device is placed in a pit to a depth of at least 12 cm. The lower foliage is removed from the seedlings a day before work.
High beds are recommended to process or do natural heating with compost and humus. When growing early varieties, it is necessary to ensure that the indicators in the design do not fall below 13 ° C. Under such conditions, pollen does not ripen, which negatively affects the crop.
There are no specific dates for agricultural work. Each farmer determines his schedule corresponding to climatic conditions. To protect seedlings in the Middle lane, 3 stages of planting in the open ground are carried out:
- at the end of April;
- from May 3 to 10;
- at the end May.
In regions with a cooler climate, tomatoes are usually grown in a greenhouse, so work takes place on May holidays. When growing early hybrids, they begin to plant in unprotected soil in the period from June 6 to 10. Having approximate dates, it is necessary to carefully measure the temperature in different parts of the garden.
How to protect from frost
Even the most complex calculations cannot predict the vagaries of nature. If the forecast promises night frosts, you need to know how to protect plants.
- Special covering materials. Polyethylene, agrofibre can protect seedlings from frost for a short while.
- Plastic containers. For small areas, it is enough to simply close the seedlings with buckets.
- Bonfire. To protect tomatoes from the night cold on a large plantation, you need to heat the plants with smoke. Around the beds on the windward side, lights are lit from improvised materials (old foliage, branches, paper).
- Sawdust. Due to humidity in the greenhouse, the seedlings die when the temperature drops to -1 ° C, so it is better to fill the bushes with the remnants of woodworking.
In case of poor light and low temperatures, the plant stops in development. The roots cease to absorb water and fertilizing, which contributes to the activation of ailments. In cloudy weather, it is advisable not to water the tomatoes until the soil is completely dry.
When the temperature drops sharply, unadapted bushes die. If the forecast promises freezing in the coming week, it is better not to risk it and postpone agricultural work for a more favorable period.
Tomatoes are the favorite vegetable culture of domestic farmers. Knowing at what temperature to plant tomatoes, you can avoid many common problems.