In the process of cultivating tomatoes, the climate and the observance of planting rules have a significant impact on the growth and development of the plant. Let’s tell you when tomato seedlings should be planted in open ground.
- Preparatory activities
- Choosing a place
- Disembarkation rules
- Dates <
- Grades <
- Disembarkation schemes
- Square-nested method
- Tape method
- Tape-nested method
- Chess method
- Preparing seedlings
- Planting process
- Subsequent leaving
- Watering <
- Mulching <
- Mineral nutrition
- Butchering <
The success of the future crop directly depends on the correct planting of tomatoes in open ground. Among the main preparatory measures for planting tomatoes, a special place is occupied by soil preparation. Tomatoes for open ground begin to be prepared long before planting procedures, even in the fall.
Choice of a place
For planting tomatoes in open ground on a personal plot, one is selected that is illuminated by sunlight and not located a place in the shade.
When choosing a garden, it is important to adhere to the principles of crop rotation: do not plant tomatoes in the same place for several years. This will protect tomato seedlings from late blight.
Potatoes will also become a bad precursor for tomatoes: it is able to accumulate and transmit plant diseases through the ground. The predecessors, after which the tomatoes are planted in open soil, are beets, carrots, corn and beans.
It is recommended to fertilize the soil before winter, making it in the process digging soil rotted manure fertilizer or humus at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 square. m of sown area. If there is not enough fertilizer, it can be applied locally 7 days before the seedlings are planted directly in the wells, adding do-it-yourself handfuls of fly ash or humus.
for about 7 days of the planned dates for planting tomato seedlings in open ground, the earth is treated with copper sulfate, which protects future plantings from fungal infectious diseases.
In the spring just before planting young tomatoes in the open soil caked soil during winter they dig and loosen.
Tatyana Orlova (Ph.D. S.-kh.Sciences):
In order not to dig the soil a second time in the spring, but only to loosen it, it is necessary to dig it in the fall correctly. Autumn digging of the soil is carried out clumpily, without breaking lumps. Soil dug in this way well accumulates precipitation in the autumn-winter period, but in the spring it is quickly ventilated and crumbles easily. As soon as the soil becomes physically ripe it is loosened with a rake.
Planting tomato seedlings in open ground depends on the climate and variety.
Depending on the climatic conditions of each region, the timing of planting tomatoes in open soil is different.
Some people observe blooming birch leaves, believing that by the time they appear, the ground is warming up enough. For residents of the southern regions, the impetus is the chirping of insects of cicadas.
One rule for moving young seedlings to their permanent place of cultivation remains unchanged: reducing the number of night frosts to a minimum. It would be better if at a depth of approximately 0.4 m the soil warmed up to a temperature of at least 15 ° C. In some cases, gardeners cover the beds with foil to create additional heat.
Failure to meet the planting dates leads to disastrous consequences for the future harvest:
- the root system of seedlings planted ahead of time will be poorly restored, because it hinders the process of absorption of nutrients;
- a long period of exposure to low temperatures leads to the death of plants;
- early-planted young bushes are more likely to suffer from infectious diseases and are affected by fungi,
- plants that are not timely moved to harsh conditions slowly develop and show low yield nostalgia.
The average time for replanting tomato seedlings falls in the middle or end of May. It is permissible to choose the most favorable number for the lunar calendar.
It is better if the tomato bushes by the time of transplantation in May have already been at least a month old (for the early ripening variety) and at least 45 days old (for the late varieties). Summer residents begin to sow seeds from March.
If it is impossible to determine the age of young sprouts (for example, when buying in a store), you need to pay attention to their appearance. Ready for transplanting into open soil, tomato seedlings have a thick stem with 6-8 leaves.
In cool weather, without fail resort to cover the plants at night with non-woven material (such as film), as well as cardboard boxes and buckets.
A properly selected variety will allow seedlings to better cope with temperature fluctuations. Summer residents use zoned varieties with increased resistance, on the bags of which there is always a note that the seedlings are suitable for planting in open ground. Hybrid temperature differences are well tolerated.
The scheme for planting tomatoes in open soil is selected for the variety:
- for tall varieties that form a bush in 1-2 stems and places grown on a trellis support are not required much,
- for plants with powerful and sprawling bushes, plants will need more space.
The less often tomato plants are planted bushes the higher rozhaynost. This is explained by the fact that with a rare planting each plant receives enough sun and air, care is simplified.
With a square-nested scheme planting bushes form the shape of a square or nest. In this way, bushy species are planted. The smaller distance between the tomato seedlings should be about 0.8 m.
When using this method, it becomes easier to take care of the crop.
Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):
Square- nesting planting method implies that plants are planted according to the scheme, for example, 50 x 50 cm or 70 x 70 cm, and not one but several plants are planted in each well. This planting method has more disadvantages than positive sides.
The tape method
With the tape scheme, you will have to dig a trench up to 0.3 m. In it, holes are made at a distance of 0.3-0.4 m from each other, where the seedlings are placed Each trench should be no closer than 0.7-0.8 m.
С Among the main advantages of the tape scheme is the saving of the landing area and the convenience of watering, which can be done using a hose stretched along the trench.
Tape-nest method of landing tomato seedlings suggest a trench, on the sides of which bushes are planted.In contrast to the simple tape method, the distance between the trenches increases to 1.5 m. Bushes can be planted 0.2-0.3 m from each other.
This planting pattern also saves bed space and is suitable for compact varieties c.
The method of planting in a checkerboard pattern is similar to the tape-nesting method, only seedlings are planted on the sides of the trench so that the bush from the second row falls in the middle between two bushes of the first row. This saves even more crop area.
Tomato seedlings must be hardened before planting in open ground. This will allow her to get used to lowering the temperature. They begin hardening 10 days before the expected landing time, taking it to an open balcony, where the air temperature reaches at least 15 ° C. The time for young shoots to stay on the street initially should not exceed 2 hours, increase it every day.
Hardened seedlings easily take root and hardly get sick after transplanting to a permanent place.
On the day of planting, tomato seedlings are treated with phytosporin against late blight disease. The solution is prepared 1 hour before processing, a young sprout is completely dipped into it.
About 1 hour before the proposed transplant procedure, it is recommended to water the seedlings. This facilitates the subsequent exit of an earthen coma from the container where the sprout germinated. When planting, the root system of young shoots is not damaged, and a lump of earth with seedlings is easily shaken out.
In young shoots, the lower rows of leaves are previously removed to easily deepen 5 cm plant. Such a deep landing enables the root system to grow and develop well.Immediately before planting young bushes, 1.5-2.0 l of water is poured into each prepared well. Tomato seedlings are placed there until the liquid has not yet been absorbed.
It is recommended that tomato seedlings be planted in open soil in the evening. This gives her the opportunity to quickly take root in the first hours.
For tall varieties, pegs are immediately inserted into the holes, and only then a young bush is placed. This sequence allows you to not damage the root system of the plant.
Initial care is reduced to monitoring the condition of the transplanted young shoots.
Ambient temperature is important in the early days. In bright sunshine, seedlings are shaded. Tomato plantings must be covered from night frosts.
It is not recommended to water tomato seedlings planted in open soil during the first 10 days. Excess moisture until the plants take root and grow, leads to decay. After this period of time, watering tomato bushes is required as necessary. Typically, the frequency of watering is once every 10 days. In the dry season, watering increases up to once a week.
Tomato seedlings that have taken root in a new place can be mulched. Do this with the help of sawdust or straw.Mulching the soil will save time on loosening the land and reduce watering.
Already after the initial watering we can but note how the tomato bushes grew and began to gain green mass.This is the time for the first feeding, which usually begins three weeks after transplanting the plants in open soil.
Organics and nitrogen-rich are used as fertilizers solution with bird droppings, which is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:15. After a three-week break, a second organic top dressing is carried out, which involves the introduction of mullein diluted in a proportion of 1:10. their productivity.Stepsons are also removed so that the plant does not waste energy on building green mass, but directs all nutrients to the formation of fruits.
Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):
Pasynkovka reception does not increase productivity, because each new stepson carries a new brush with inflorescences. The main task of this technique is guaranteed to get an early harvest, because in a cold climate, the harvest on the stepsons will not have time to ripen.