Dwarf tomato varieties are combined into several varieties of superdeterminant crops that do not grow above 30-40 cm under greenhouse conditions or at room temperature. Ampel varieties are suitable for growing on the windowsill or in a small greenhouse.
- General characteristics of dwarf tomatoes
- Detailed description of the variety
- Description of the bush
- Description of the fruit
- Planting seedlings
- Care of seedlings
- Care and watering
- Diseases of dwarf tomatoes
- To summarize
Dwarf tomatoes are an advantageous combination of small stems and minimal plant care costs. The fruits of the varieties are small, but juicy and tasty. From dwarf varieties they prepare wonderful snacks, salads and marinades at any time of the year.
General characteristics of dwarf tomatoes
Dwarf tomatoes – a group of vegetables that covers dozens of different varieties.
The small height of the bush allows you to plant the plant in small areas or in pots. In greenhouses, dwarf tomatoes can grow a little more, but the average height of the bush does not exceed 30 cm. Only 3 inflorescences are formed on the main shoot of the varieties. After the appearance of the latter, the growth of the crop completely stops.
Among tomatoes, dwarf and ampelous varieties are popular, which coexist well in adverse conditions.Most species with low green trunks belong to early ripe tomatoes. Thanks to the undersized varieties, the first crop can be obtained for the third month. The stunted tomato of the standard variety has a straight stem, which leads to periodic deflection of branches under the weight of heavy fruits. This type of dwarf tomato can be planted quite densely and save space on a small land plot.
Detailed description of the variety
Reviews of dwarf crops are not always unambiguous. Superdeterminant plants can grow even in the cold season, if all the necessary conditions are created in the room: temperature, humidity and lighting. The main characteristics of the variety:
- compact bush;
- high yield with minimal care;
- whimsical to temperature conditions;
- good yield ;
- resistance to fungal diseases and viral infections (tobacco mosaic).
Late Yermak culture does not grow above 50 cm, but bears fruit well. The average weight of fruits reaches 75 g. Dwarf Ermak tomatoes are stored for a long time in a cool room.
Variety Kolokolchik is super low-growing and it does not grow above 40 cm, bears up to 2.5 kg of tomatoes from each bush. If the plant has many fruits, their average weight does not exceed 40 g for each tomato.
Description of the bush
The low height of low-growing varieties allows you to plant a crop on a window or balcony.
In such conditions, the plant feels behaves well and bears fruit no worse than crops planted on an open land plot. Outside the greenhouse or at home, open fertilized soil is a favorable environment for a dozen undersized tomatoes. Seedlings are planted at a distance of 10-20 cm from each other. A healthy bush does not interfere with neighboring crops and quickly becomes covered with the first inflorescences.
Up to 10 fruits are placed on one branch of a dwarf culture. After pinching, a tomato, placed on a window or balcony, bears fruit better: moisture and nutrients do not diverge to unnecessary stepchildren. Each centimeter of the bush should nourish the fruits and protect the plant from external threats. At a time when the culture does not bear fruit, the stems perform a decorative function. Dwarf plants take root well in the living room.
Green trunks with a height of not more than 30 cm do not need support. Only crops are tied in cases when thin stems do not support the weight of tomatoes. The average yield of a bush with a height of less than 40 cm is 1.5-2 kg.
Description of the fruit
Dwarf species of tomatoes have a bright red color.The hue depends on the size of the fetus and the sufficient amount of fertilizer during its growth. The red fruit may have a rounded or elongated shape. The average weight of tomatoes varies from 20 to 50 g. From one small undersized bush, perhaps a dozen identical fruits. The red color of the tomato indicates the ripeness of the crop, which can be harvested at any time of the year.
Red tomato has a pleasant sweet-sour taste. The taste of the fruit is used for the preparation of tomato paste, vitamin salads and marinades. Tomato juice has a rich red color, which does not need additional dyes. The taste of dwarf tomatoes is compared with cherry, so the fruits of indoor crops are used as a delicious side dish.
Growing seedlings for stunted bushes is carried out in several stages. The first step is to prepare a room for seedlings, pots or boxes, as well as an environment in which seedlings start active growth. The cultivation of indoor dwarfs takes place according to a special technology, taking into account a number of factors: environmental humidity and temperature conditions in the room.Indoor plants are planted from seeds prepared according to a simple principle:
- seeds are selected for cultivation in a room or living room only whole, without damage and dark spots;
- dwarfs need growth in additional protection, so before planting the seeds are soaked in a home-made solution (one part of water and one part of Fitosporin powder);
- indoor tomatoes sit in disinfected pots (a concentrated potassium permanganate solution is used).
Cultivation of “dwarfs” in the old soil will bring many disappointments: fungal spores or the tobacco mosaic virus may remain in the soil. Indoor tomatoes are less resistant, therefore, infection through the ground cannot be tolerated. Chinese tomato is planted in boxes. Soil for planting is selected, washed, frozen and dried.
For the rapid growth of dwarf seedlings, good watering and treatment with strengthening solutions are necessary. To prepare a solution with potassium permanganate, you will need to mix 1% concentrate (10 drops) and a liter of water. Minibel or Pinocchio seeds are fortified with whey diluted in water. The cultivation of “dwarfs” takes place throughout the year.
Low-growing tomatoes are photophilous, like all determinate varieties. If the seedlings are transplanted into the main pots in the winter, additional lighting is organized for it.Tomatoes grow faster if there is no draft in the room with seedlings.
For the rapid growth of seedlings, you can not choose the north side of the building or shaded rooms. Dwarf varieties belong to medium-yielding species and ripen on the 110th day after planting.
Tomatoes of the variety, especially hybrids, can give the first crop on the 95th day. Seedling growth directly depends on the conditions created. For early fruiting of tomatoes, seeds sown in early March, and by the end of spring, seedling growth accelerates. Tomatoes appear in the second month and quickly blush. Dwarf tomatoes determine the height of the bush (growth stops at 8-9 ovaries).
Care and watering
Tomatoes growing on stunted bushes need proper care. For the correct growth of stems, periodic watering is organized. Moisturizing the soil, in which tomatoes appear just in time:
- water the soil 2 times a week;
- the soil in the pot should always be moist;
- for watering, the water is heated to a temperature of 20-25 ° C;
- water the tomatoes and seeds in the morning;
- water the root system, and spray the stems and foliage from the spray.
Tomatoes, seedlings and seeds need frequent fertilizer.
Without nutrients, the bushes quickly fade and break under the weight of the fruit. For feeding, homemade substances are used: manure or solutions with vitamin supplements.
The manure is diluted in purified water in a ratio of 1: 5. The nutrient mixture is poured under each bush in a volume of not more than 1 liter. For feeding use serum diluted with water in equal proportions. Wood ash allows you to saturate the soil with nitrogen necessary for the growth of bushes.
After the first feeding, fertilizers are used no more than once every 12 days. Aged interval protects the root system and stems of the plant. During diseases, watering the bushes decreases, and bait – becomes more frequent. Processing of stems and foliage is carried out only after removal of the infected parts of the plant.
Dwarf tomato diseases
Dwarf plants bear fruit in conditions close to greenhouse. Diseases that occur on healthy bushes or seedlings can occur due to improper maintenance of the plant or through the carrier of spores and infections. Tomatoes on stunted bushes appear rot. Such a disease indicates a violation of crop irrigation.
The “black leg” threatens all indoor tomatoes regardless of the frequency of feeding.
The cause of the black root in the crop is a fungus. After the appearance of such a disease, infected bushes are completely removed.They struggle with the “black leg” and apical rot using timely prophylaxis and proper care.
Dwarf tomatoes suffer from bacterial diseases. Seedlings and bushes become infected from infected seeds that are not processed before planting in pots. The first sign of a bacterial disease is dark spots that affect the surface of ripe tomatoes. Darkening of the fruit is accompanied by a slow withering of the bush. The indoor plant can be saved from the disease only at the initial stages and after the destruction of all infected stems.
If prevention is carried out before planting and harvesting, indoor tomatoes are well protected Processing Phytosporin seeds and disinfection of the soil in the pot strengthens the future root system of the tomato.
To protect the stems and foliage from fungi, use a safe natural additive – milk whey obtained from fermented milk products waste. This solution forms an invisible film that protects the culture from fungi or harm Lei. Prevention includes trimming unnecessary stepsons and dry foliage.
Dwarf tomatoes are plants from which every person is able to harvest all year. From one undersized bush they collect up to 5 kg of juicy and healthy tomatoes. Prevention and care guarantee the health of fruits that grow on a window or balcony.