To harvest a good tomato crop , you must follow the rules for caring for the plant, calculate the time of sowing seeds. Consider when to plant tomatoes for seedlings and transplant plants in open ground.
- Seeding time
- Region of cultivation
- Equipment of the plot
- Tomato variety
- Generally accepted sowing dates seed
- Temperature and lighting
- Lunar calendar
Time for sowing seeds
It is impossible to say unequivocally when to plant tomatoes for seedlings. Departure times vary by multiple tori.
When choosing the number and month of sowing seeds, a number of factors are taken into account:
- growing region;
- site equipment;
- tomato variety.
Let us consider in more detail how all of the above affects the timing of sowing seeds.
Region of growing
Climatic conditions in different The regions of our country are significantly different. In some areas, warm summers come very late and do not last long. Accordingly, plants can be planted in the soil no earlier than mid-June.
Tatyana Orlova (Ph.D. S.-kh.Sciences):
In the southern regions of the country, tomatoes can be grown by seedling by direct sowing in the ground. The reckless way is widespread both among farmers, and among gardeners of fans. Tomatoes are sown in the ground at the end of April; a full crop is obtained in late August and early September. Non-seedling tomatoes are more resilient to various adverse factors.
In the southern regions, you can grow vegetables in open ground already from May 1 or 2, and under film cover after April 15.
If you plant plants in cold soil, growth will slow down. In addition, frozen bushes are more susceptible to various tomato diseases. Accordingly, seedlings are planted in a well-heated soil only after the threat of spring frost has passed.
Thinking about when to plant tomatoes for seedlings, you need to take into account the equipment of the garden plot.
Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse
Some garden plots are equipped with a greenhouse. Accordingly, planting can be done quite early. Greenhouses can be made of various materials and equipped in different ways, so it is difficult to indicate the date of planting. Some buildings are covered with a film, attached to a wooden or metal frame.The air temperature inside them is not much higher than outside, so you can plant plants in them no earlier than in early May.
There are buildings made of polycarbonate, which protects well from cold air. In such greenhouses, plants are planted in early spring. If you equip them with a heater, you can not be attached to dates or months at all. As soon as the seedlings on the windowsill get stronger and reach 25-30 cm in height, it is transplanted into the greenhouse.
Growing in open ground
When planting tomatoes in open ground, you need to wait for warm weather, so the tomatoes seedlings should be planted no earlier than mid-March. If it is possible to provide the seedlings with the required temperature, they are engaged in sowing seeds no earlier than April 15.
Before you start growing seedlings, you need to decide on the tomato variety.
Ultra-early varieties ripen in 70-80 days. They grow and develop faster than mid-season, so their change can be sown several days later than mid-season seeds. In the southern regions, they sow seeds from the first of April to the beginning of June. In the northern regions, sowing of seeds is carried out in early May.
Early ripe varieties ripen in 85-100 days.In the southern regions, seeds of early ripe tomato varieties are sown in late March. In regions with a short summer, sowing of seeds is carried out in early April. After transplanting into open ground, seedlings ready for planting are covered with a film. As soon as the warm summer comes, the film cover is removed.
Mid early varieties mature 100-115 days after emergence. In regions with a warm climate, seeds are sown from March to early April. In regions with a cold climate, seeds are sown in April. It is recommended to grow mid-early varieties in the north of the country in greenhouses. Only frost-resistant varieties of Siberian breeding are suitable for open ground.
Mid-ripening varieties ripen in 115-130 days. In the southern and central regions, seed sowing should be done in early March. Plants are planted in open ground under a film cover. In the northern regions, seeds are sown at the end of February.
Late-ripening varieties ripen in 130 days. Sowing seeds, regardless of the climatic conditions of the region, are engaged in the second half of February and early March. Tomatoes of Siberian selection are preferred. It is very important not to rush into the sowing of late ripe tomatoes. If you plant overgrown seedlings in the ground, you should not expect a good harvest. Late-ripening varieties are grown in the greenhouse.
Pay attention to what varieties are grown in the region.Tomatoes that have given consistent high yields in the past will also be ugly this year.
Commonly sown seeds
We looked at when to plant tomatoes depending on the climatic characteristics of the region and the variety of vegetable culture. Now let’s talk about when to plant tomatoes, based on generally accepted standards.
January is the most inappropriate month for sowing seeds. Even if the plants develop slowly, they will outgrow by the time of planting. It is advisable to sow seeds in the first month of winter, only if you plan to pinch off the top and plant it separately. This method helps to get 2 plants from one seed. Such plants are generally not high-yielding and disease resistant. It is better to purchase high-yielding hybrids.
In February, they sow only if there is a heated greenhouse on the plot. In March, you can already think about sowing seeds. It is produced in the last days of this spring month. March seedlings are planted in May, so farmers living in the central and southern parts of the country should plant tomato seeds in March.
Tatyana Orlova (Candidate of Agricultural Sciences):
January and February are the most unfavorable months for seedling cultivation for the reason that The daylight hours at this time are only 7-8 hours, and tomatoes need 12-14 hours. Be sure to additionally seedlings with artificial light.
In the period from February 20 to March 10, it is recommended to sow tall varieties early ripe sowing no later than March, early varieties for greenhouses sown in mid-February. Seed should be sown on favorable days.
April and May are the most suitable months for sowing seeds.To harvest an early crop, the seeds are sown in April, to get a late crop, the process is postponed until May.
Two-month-old plants are planted in a permanent place.
Temperature and lighting
When growing tomatoes, you need to follow a number of requirements regarding temperature and lighting conditions, for example, in the first days after emergence, the room temperature should not fall below 24 ° C.
If the air temperature varies between 24-26 ° , The first shoots will appear on day 6. Bulk seeds will sprout in 8-9 days. If at home the air temperature varies from 20 ° C to 23 ° C, then the seeds will sprout on 10-11 days after planting. If the air temperature in the room is less than 18 ° C, then the seedlings will germinate on the order of 2-3 weeks.
Regardless of whether the seeds were sown in February or March, you will have to additionally illuminate containers with plants. If this is not done, the landings will stretch excessively upward. The stalk of the plant itself will remain thin.
When choosing the date of sowing seeds for seedlings, pay attention to the lunar calendar. It is proved that the moon affects absolutely all spheres of life and affects the growth of plants. The lunar calendar (or landing calendar) is bought every year, it gives a complete picture regarding favorable and unfavorable days for planting tomatoes.
- Sometimes the seedlings outgrow. Planting such plants in the ground is not recommended. The best way out is to reseed vegetable culture. If it’s too late to grow seedlings, you can try to grow tomatoes in open ground from seeds. The seeds of early tomatoes are sown in open ground from March 1 to March 22, depending on the climate.
- When sowing seeds, pay attention to the instructions that are attached to each package of planting material. As a rule, it is served in the form of a table, where possible sowing dates are indicated. These tables indicate the approximate maturity of a vegetable crop. Based on these data and taking into account the climatic features of a particular region, it is easy to select varieties that are ideally suited for a particular personal plot.
- The timing of planting a plant in a permanent place is largely dependent on climatic conditions. In the same region in different years, heat can come in March or April. There are also abnormal years when heat comes only in May or, for example, in February, therefore, when deciding on when to plant grown tomato seedlings in a permanent place, you need to focus on the weather forecast. Air temperature and soil temperature at the beginning of May can vary greatly. It is necessary to ensure that the moment the seedlings are planted, the soil warms up to 10 ° C, and preferably 15 cm.
Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):
When growing your own seedlings, you must always have an insurance fund in case of death of part of the planted seedlings. If you plant 50-60 roots of seedlings, then insurance plants should have at least 10-15 pieces.
Seedlings are purchased on the market, but home plants, when grown which met all the standards, are more productive than those purchased on the market. There are frequent cases when after a while seedlings bought on the market begin to fade. Also on the market, under the guise of hybrids, they often sell ordinary varieties.
No matter how correctly the timing of planting tomato seeds is calculated, the quality of seedlings depends on proper care. It is best to grow plants on the windowsill near the southern windows. They are the most illuminated at any time of the year. After landing, the containers must be covered with foil. This is done to speed up the process of emergence of seedlings. After emergence, the film is removed. Some gardeners plant tomatoes in common containers, after which the plants have to be planted. Better to plant the seeds 1 in separate containers.