Growing potatoes in large areas – troublesome lesson. It is difficult to dig a large area with your own hands without special tools, and it takes a lot of time. A potato tractor is an effective substitute for manual labor, thanks to which it is much faster and easier to make hilling.
- Tractor varieties
- Landing gears
- Jerzy <
- Mini-seater <
- Types of hills
- By the principle of operation
- By the type of device
- Harvesting devices
- Planting potatoes with the tractor
- Preparing the soil
- Planting and care
Varieties of tractors
Planting and hilling They are produced using 2 types of tractors:
MTZ82 has been modified several times over the entire production period. The main mechanical components are located on a frame made of steel, reinforced with side members, the intermediate support provides the necessary rigidity, the front axle is equipped with smaller diameter wheels. The tractor is equipped with telescopic sleeves that allow changing the gauge.
YuMZ-6 was designed on the basis of MTZ, designed for processing fields. It is considered one of the simplest and most reliable tractors produced in the USSR. A motor tractor has been used for many years to simplify agricultural work on large areas.
Today, there are many gadgets on the market that can greatly facilitate work on the site. If for owners 6 hectare it is not essential, in the processing of large areas it is an opportunity to reduce energy consumption and increase productivity.
Jerzy is a device that consists of several studded compounds characterized by a diameter. They are located relative to each other at an angle of 40-45̊ °. This design allows the formation of ridges during the movement of the tractor. The design can be modified by installing additional hedgehogs on the same frame parallel to each other. The frame can be attached to any motor cultivator. Hedgehogs are suitable for use on any type of soil.
Hedgehogs are welded to a hollow iron pipe with a diameter of 25 mm. Inside this pipe is placed another one to which the brackets are attached, connecting the structure with the fasteners. Each hedgehog should have spikes 6-7 cm long, 6-8 mm in diameter, the spacing between the spikes is 40-50 mm. Disks should gradually decrease in diameter to 35, 25 and 15 cm. Hedgehogs can be made independently from sheets of iron and rods.
The planter is attached to the tractor or walk-behind tractor. This device can greatly facilitate the landing process.Using the planter, you can simultaneously:
- form the furrows;
- fold the seed;
- fill the furrows with soil.
Functionality depends on capacity, soil composition, processing area. A planter consists of:
- a plow;
- a container;
May consist of one or more blocks. Additional blocks allow fertilizers to be added to the furrows at the same time. Four-row structures allow planting an area of 1 ha in literally 0.5 hours. From 12 to 20 potatoes can be accommodated in the container.
Types of pups
By the principle of operation
- disk machines, performing hilling of potatoes;
The disk hiller is considered universal. It copes with work on any type of soil, suitable for use on small and large areas. The disk hiller has a high cost, this is its only minus. If you wish, you can build it on your own. A homemade bogeyman is a great alternative if you don’t have much money to buy expensive equipment. This is the simplest hiller, but not one advanced analogue can be compared with its reliability. The downside is the need to connect to a tractor or cultivator with high power. The plus is that it is very simple to make a home-made analogue.
By the type of device
- fixed ;.
The fixed hiller is not allows you to adjust the width of the capture, so when processing the field you need to make the layout as even as possible, otherwise the work will be very difficult. There are okuchniki for tractors and for motoblocks. The first allows you to simultaneously make furrows, loosen the soil and remove weeds along with the roots. The second ones are mounted instead of the opener to the walk-behind tractor. During the passage of the row-spacings, they pour the earth directly onto the tubers.
The adjustable ones have the ability to change the working width, so the ridger is used on beds of any width. The optimal row spacing width is 70-80 cm. Too large a width makes it difficult to further care for the beds. The disadvantage of such a device is to put the soil back into the trenches.
The digger is fixed to the rear suspension of the tractor.
Conveyor digger is considered one of the most complicated structures. On its front part there is a share that cuts the ground during processing. Root crops along with the soil fall on the conveyor, where they are cleaned from dirt. Most often, such models of diggers are used for harvesting in large farms. Their main disadvantage is the high price.
The vibrating digger for potatoes also has a front share that cuts the ground. But the bar table is not made in the form of a conveyor, but is welded tightly. The soil to be cut together with the vegetables falls onto a grating vibrating from movement, due to which the tubers are cleaned. Such a model is most advantageous for home use, besides its price is lower than that of the previous analogue.
The fan digger is the simplest design, reminiscent of the vibrating device. The potato digger here is made of an okuchnik, to which rods in the form of a fan are attached to the back. On the rods, the tubers are cleaned of dirt. It is recommended to use a digger with a walk-behind tractor.
A drum potato digger is rarely used due to one serious drawback: it damages the potato peel when peeling. The drum is connected to the power take-off shaft by direct drive. At the front is a knife that cuts the soil.
Planting potatoes with a tractor
First, the seed is prepared. Potatoes are germinated for 2 weeks. After 14 days, thin white processes are removed. For germination, the tubers provide enough light. They are laid out on the floor in 1 layer, periodically turned over. Potatoes are ready for planting when powerful sprouts of green color appear on it.
Preparing the soil
Potatoes are planted when the soil warms up to 4 ℃.Before using the tractor cultivator for planting, the soil is moistened. The soil should crumble easily without sticking to the shovel. Digging the earth leads to the destruction of its fertile qualities. Tilling is carried out using a rake and treat the soil with a mechanized milling cutter.
The depth of processing should not exceed 10 cm. With insufficient tillage, the tubers will not receive oxygen, thereby reducing yield. For processing, 3 types of plows are used:
The maximum effect is revolving devices. Plows differ in the number of working buildings. For equipment with low power, plows with 2-4 cases are used; for powerful tractors, 10-12 cases are provided. Landing with a mini-tractor does not require marking of furrows. Rows are formed at a distance of 70 cm with a width between the holes of 30 cm, the gauge is 14 cm.
Planting and care
Using a cultivator, make furrows in which lay the seed, observing the above distances. The previous furrow is covered with earth from the next. The landing is smooth, thanks to the passage of the wheel along the cut furrow.
The tubers are planted manually or by connecting a mini-planter. In this case, a plot of 2 hectares can actually be planted in an hour. You can make a planter yourself. A home-made copy is no worse than the purchased counterpart.
Further care is carried out with the help of hillers.Along with the earthing up, weeding of rows between rows and removal of weeds takes place. Hilling is an important process that helps to increase oxygen supply to root crops and form beautiful bushes.
It is difficult to do all the work with your hands on large areas, so people began to mechanize all the processes. Watering can also be mechanized by installing a drip system. This will save you money on water and time.